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The Ultimate Guide to the 100 Most Common Polish Adverbs

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An adverb is a word or a phrase used as a modifier of adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. We’re going to introduce you today to the rules of use and formation of adverbs in Polish, as well as the 100 most common Polish adverbs. Are you ready to learn about adverbs in Polish? 
Language blog posts and other resources such as Must-Know Adverbs and Phrases for Connecting Thoughts are waiting for you on PolishPod101.com.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Polish Adverbs: Placement and Formation
  2. Gradation of Adverbs in Polish
  3. Uncomparable Adverbs
  4. The Diminutive Form of Polish Adverbs
  5. Polish Adverbs of Time
  6. Polish Adverbs of Frequency
  7. Polish Adverbs of Place
  8. Polish Adverbs of Manner
  9. Final Thoughts

1. Polish Adverbs: Placement and Formation

Top verbs

You already know from the introduction what a Polish adverb (przysłówek) can be used for and what it modifies. Now, it’s time to have a look at the placement and formation of basic Polish adverbs, and phrases that behave like adverbs. Just a note before we start: some adverbs in Polish look like adjectives to native English speakers, so don’t be surprised by their translations. 

1- Placement of Adverbs

In most cases, adverbs in Polish are placed in front of verbs, like in this example: 

  • On wolno biega

“He runs slowly.”

a man visibly out of breath after a run

However, it’s acceptable to place Polish adverbs after the verb for emphasis. When an adverb in Polish modifies an adjective, it’s also placed before it:

  • Ona jest źle wychowana

“She’s badly behaved.”

2- Formation of Adverbs

Adverbs in Polish are formed from adjectives. To create an adverb, you need the stem of an adjective, which is usually obtained by removing the last letter from the masculine form of an adjective. If you don’t feel confident with adjectives in Polish yet, familiarize yourself with our resources: Using Adjectives and High Frequency Adjectives.

Have a look at what’s happening with the adjective szybki (“quick”) in order to form an adverb: 

szybki (“quick”) -> szybk 

Once you have a stem like szybk, you need to add an appropriate ending to form an adverb. In this case, it’s -o:

szybki (adjective) -> szybko (adverb) [“quickly”]

This is the most common pattern in Polish adverb formation. Here are some other examples: 

mocny (adj.) [“strong”] -> mocno (adv.) [“strongly”]

jasny (adj.) [“light”] -> jasno (adv.) [“lightly”]

suchy (adj.) [“dry”] -> sucho (adv.) [“dryly”]

Another pattern governs adjectives with a stem ending in a consonant other than -k and -l, and followed by -n. These adverbs take the ending -ie:

spokojny (adj.) [“calm”] -> spokojnie (adv.) [“calmly”]

wygodny (adj.) [“comfortable”] -> wygodnie (adv.) [“comfortably”]

ładny (adj.) [“pretty”] -> ładnie (adv.) [“prettily”]

pogodny (adj.) [“bright”] -> pogodnie (adv.) [“brightly”]

The final rule applies to adjectives with the masculine form ending in -ry. These adverbs take the ending -rze:

mądry (adj.) [“wise”] -> mądrze (adv.) [“wisely”]

dobry (adj.) [“good”] -> dobrze (adv.) [“well”]

As you know about languages, where there are rules, there are exceptions: 

zły (adj.) [“bad”] -> źle (adv.) (“badly”)

stary (adj.) [“old”] -> staro (adv.) (“old”)

2. Gradation of Adverbs in Polish

An adverb in Polish, unlike an adjective, is unchangeable. This means that it looks the same regardless of the word it modifies. However, an adverb can be susceptible to gradation, and when it is, it has comparative and superlative forms. 


As someone who wants to learn about adverbs in Polish, vocabulary formation rules regarding gradation will come in very handy for you. 

1- Comparatives

Very often, a comparative adverb can be obtained by adding the suffix -ej or -iej to the stem of an adverb:

łatwo (“easily”) -> łatwiej (“more easily”)

trudno (“difficult”) -> trudniej (“more difficult”)

przyjemnie (“pleasantly”) -> przyjemniej (“more pleasantly”) 

Exceptions mostly include changes to sounds, and become predictable as you practice Polish: 

gorąco (“hot”) -> goręcej (“hotter”)

wesoło (“cheerfully”) -> weselej (“more cheerfully”)

zielono (“green”) -> zieleniej (“greener”)

green asparagus

The comparative can also be formed by adding the word bardziej (“more”) in front of the adverb. It’s always an acceptable alternative. Here’s an example of both gradation techniques:

ciemno (“dark”) -> ciemniej (“darker”)

    -> bardziej ciemno (“darker”)

How do you know whether the comparative or superlative form is correct? You can use this Polish online dictionary to double-check.

2- Superlatives

The superlative is based on the comparative. You need to add the prefix -naj

łatwiej (“more easily”) -> najłatwiej (“the most easily”)

goręcej (“hotter”) -> najgoręcej (“the hottest”)

weselej (“more cheerfully”) -> najweselej (“the most cheerfully”)

Just like in the case of comparatives, it’s possible to create superlatives by adding a word in front of an adverb in Polish. This time it’s najbardziej (“the most”): 

ciemniej (“darker”) -> najciemniej (“the darkest”)

bardziej ciemno (“darker”) -> najbardziej ciemno (“the darkest”)

3. Uncomparable Adverbs

When trying to learn about adverbs in Polish, grammar basics are necessary. Unfortunately, not all adverbs undergo gradation. It very often has to do with the meaning of a particular adverb, as its gradation wouldn’t make sense. 

A good example is the Polish equivalent of the word “absolutely” (absolutnie). It’d sound strange in English too, to say “more absolutely” or “the most absolutely.” Here are some more uncomparable adverbs: 

  • bezgotówkowo (“cashless”)

W tym sklepie płaci się bezgotówkowo.

“This store is cashless.” (Literally: “In this store, one can only pay cashless.”) 

  • aktualnie (“at the moment” / “currently”)

Aktualnie nie ma takiej potrzeby

“Currently, there’s no such need.” 

  • bezczynnie (“without any activity” / “doing nothing”)

Siedzi bezczynnie

“He’s sitting there doing nothing.”

  • bezsennie (“sleepless”)

Leżę w łóżku bezsennie

“I lay in my bed sleeplessly.” 

  • bezpłatnie (“for free”)

Można zbadać się bezpłatnie

“One can do a check-up for free.” 

  • boso (“barefoot”)

Moja córka kocha chodzić boso

“My daughter loves walking barefoot.”

a picture of bare feet of three people
  • całkowicie (“entirely”)

Ufacie mu całkowicie

“You trust him entirely.”

  • głównie (“mainly”)

Jest to problem głównie wśród młodzieży

“It’s a problem mainly among teenagers.”

  • ledwo (“barely”)

Ledwo nam się udało

“We barely managed.”

  • magicznie (“magically”)

Było magicznie! 

“It was magical!”

  • niechętnie (“unwillingly”)

Niechętnie przyznał jej rację

“Unwillingly, he admitted that she was right.”

  • chętnie (“willingly” / “gladly”)

Chętnie pójdę na spacer

“I’ll willingly go for a walk.”

  • naprawdę (“really”)

Twój dom jest naprawdę piękny

“Your house is really beautiful.”

4. The Diminutive Form of Polish Adverbs

More essential verbs

Polish adverbs can also be modified to create their diminutive forms. There’s a number of endings that can be added to a Polish adverb for this purpose, but only one is applicable in most cases. Look at what happens with the adverb cicho (“quietly”):

-utkocichutko

The changes in sounds are often similar to the ones governing comparatives: 

wesoło (adv.) -> weselej (comp.) -> weselutko (dim.)

czerwono (adv.) -> czerwieniej  (comp.) -> czerwieniutko (dim.)

Now that you know all of the basics, it’s time to begin our Polish adverbs list! 

5. Polish Adverbs of Time

Polish adverbs of time answer the question “When?” (Kiedy?). 

  • przedwczoraj (“the day before yesterday”)

Kupiłam to przedwczoraj. 

“I bought it the day before yesterday.”

  • wczoraj (“yesterday”)

Wczoraj poszłam do kina

“I went to the cinema yesterday.”

  • dziś / dzisiaj (“today”) – these two forms are interchangeable 

Dziś / dzisiaj nie mam czasu

“I don’t have time today.”

  • wcześnie (“soon”)

Jest za wcześnie! 

“It’s too soon!”

  • późno (“late”)

Już późno

“It’s already late.”

  • najpierw (“firstly”)

Najpierw zjedz obiad

“Firstly, eat your lunch.”

  • ostatecznie (“lastly,” “finally”)

Ostatecznie się zgodził

“Lastly/Finally, he agreed.” 

  • przedtem (“before”)

Nawet przedtem to się zdarzało

“It happened even before.”

  • potem (“after”)

Najpierw wypił sok, a potem piwo

“Firstly, he drank his juice and then a beer.” 

  • teraz (“now”)

Teraz jest za późno

“Now, it’s too late.”

a child holding a clock
  • wcześniej (“previously”)

Wcześniej nie wiedzieliśmy jak to zrobić

“Previously, we didn’t know how to do it.”

  • niedawno (“recently”)

Niedawno się wprowadzili

“They moved in recently.”

  • obecnie (“currently”)

Obecnie nie macie pracy

“Currently, you’re unemployed.”

Below, you can find a table of other adverbs in Polish referring to time:

LastThisNext
WeekW ostatnim tygodniuW tym tygodniuW przyszłym tygodniu
MonthW ostatnim miesiącuW tym miesiącuW przyszłym miesiącu
YearW ostatnim rokuW tym rokuW przyszłym roku

W ostatnim tygodniu nic nie zarobił

“He didn’t earn any money last week.”

W tym miesiącu kupujemy samochód

“We’re buying a car this month.”

W przyszłym roku kończy studia

“He’s graduating next year.”

That’s not all you should know about the time in Polish. To learn how to ask “What time is it?”, simply click on the link. If you want to learn about more Polish adverbs related to time, check out our blog post about telling the time.

6. Polish Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency in Polish are words used to answer the question “How often?” (Jak często?). 

Here’s a list of Polish adverbs of frequency: 

  • nigdy (“never”)

Nigdy bym tak nie powiedziała

“I’d never say that!”

a woman covering her mouth
  • rzadko (“rarely”)

Rzadko się widujemy

“We rarely see one another.” 

  • nieczęsto (“seldom”)

Nieczęsto wychodzi z domu

“He doesn’t leave home often.”

  • często (“often” / “frequently”)

Często nie ma nas w domu

“We’re often not at home.”

  • zazwyczaj (“usually”)

Zazwyczaj o tej porze czytam gazetę

“At this time, I usually read a newspaper.”

  • zawsze (“always”)

Zawsze mam rację

“I’m always right.”

  • cały czas (“all the time”)

Ona cały czas płacze

“She cries all the time.”

  • czasami (“sometimes”)

Czasami nas odwiedzają. 

“Sometimes they visit us.”

There’s also a number of adverbial expressions with co (“what,” but here it should be translated as “every”), which are useful for talking about frequency: 

Co…

…godzinę (“every hour”)

 Bierz jedną tabletkę co godzinę

“Take one tablet every hour.”

…dziennie [spelled together] (“every day”)

Codziennie to samo

“It’s the same thing every day.”

…tydzień (“every week”)

Robert co tydzień odwiedza matkę

“Robert visits his mother every week.”

7. Polish Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place answer the question “Where?” (Gdzie?).

  • tutaj (“here”)

Tutaj wybudujemy dom

“We’ll build a house here.”

  • tam (“there”)

Tam nie ma już słoneczników

“There are no more sunflowers there.” 

  • wszędzie (“everywhere”)

Szukałam wszędzie

“I’ve looked everywhere.”

  • wewnątrz (“inside”)

Wewnątrz nic nie ma. 

“There’s nothing inside.”

  • na zewnątrz (“outside”)

Maja trzyma psy na zewnątrz

“Maja keeps her dogs outside.”

  • na górze (“upstairs”)

Zostawiłam je na górze

“I left them upstairs.” 

stairs
  • na dole (“downstairs”)

Na dole mieszkają moi rodzice

“My parents live downstairs.”

  • za granicą (“abroad”)

Magda zawsze chciała mieszkać za granicą

“Magda’s always wanted to live abroad.” 

  • poza (“away”)

Oni uczą się poza domem

“They study away from home.”

  • dookoła (“around”)

Rozejrzałam się dookoła

“I’ve looked around.” 

  • blisko (“near”)

Pracujecie blisko domu

“You work near home.”

  • daleko (“far”)

Wyjeżdżasz daleko? 

“Are you going far (away)?”

Do you already know how to talk about directions and finding places in Poland? If not, click on the link to learn all you need to know about it. 

8. Polish Adverbs of Manner 

Polish adverbs of manner are used to describe the manner in which a given action has been performed:

  • powoli (“slowly”)

Chodzimy powoli

“We walk slowly.”

  • prędko (“quickly”)

Prędko to nie nastąpi

“It won’t happen quickly.”

  • ostrożnie (“carefully”)

Prowadźcie ostrożnie

“Drive carefully.”

  • lekkomyślnie (“carelessly”)

Beata zachowuje się lekkomyślnie

“Beata behaves carelessly.”

  • głośno (“loudly”)

Jest tu za głośno

“It’s too loud here.”

  • szczęśliwie (“happily”)

Żyli długo i szczęśliwie

“They lived happily ever after.”

  • nieszczęśliwie (“unhappily”)

Adam jest nieszczęśliwie zakochany. 

“Adam is unhappily in love.”

  • pięknie (“beautifully”)

Wyglądała pięknie

“She looked beautifully.”

  • brzydko (“ugly”)

Brzydko tu jest

“It’s ugly here.”

  • dosłownie (“literally”)

Ania bierze wszystko dosłownie

“Ania takes everything literally.”

  • zwyczajnie (“simply” / “ordinarily”)

Zwyczajnie nie masz racji! 

“You’re simply wrong!” 

  • płytko (“shallowly”)

Jest tu za płytko

“It’s too shallow here.” 

  • głęboko (“deeply”)

On jest głęboko wierzący

“He’s deeply religious.”

  • niezręcznie (“awkwardly”)

Zachowała się niezręcznie

“She behaved awkwardly.”

  • miło (“nice”)

Miło mi Cię poznać

“It’s nice to meet you.”

  • nerwowo (“nervously”)

Nerwowo poprawiła włosy

“She nervously rearranged her hair.”

  • nudno (“boring”)

Na lekcji było nudno

“The lesson was boring.”

a yawning man
  • ciekawie (“in an interesting way”)

Ciekawie opowiadał o historii

“He spoke about history in an interesting manner.”

  • koniecznie (“necessarily”)

Koniecznie mi o tym opowiedz

“You must tell me about it.”

  • długo (“long”)

Długo już czekamy

“We’ve been waiting long.” 

  • krótko (“shortly”)

Nie będzie mnie krótko

“I will be gone shortly.” (The meaning here is: “for a short time.”)

  • wysoko (“high”)

Czy trzeba się wysoko wspinać? 

“Do you need to climb high?”

  • nisko (“low”)

Samolot leci nisko

“The plane is flying low.”

  • drogo (“expensive”)

W tym sklepie jest drogo

“This shop is expensive.” (Literally: “It’s expensive in this shop.”)

  • tanio (“cheaply”)

Gdzie tanio kupić mleko sojowe? 

“Where can you buy soy milk cheaply?”

9. Final Thoughts

We hope you find this article helpful on your journey in learning about adverbs in Polish. Language blog posts like this one are here on PolishPod101.com to clearly explain complex grammar concepts to you. Speaking of, have you read our article on Polish conjugations and Polish pronouns yet?

PolishPod101 is much more than just another language blog, though! We have countless lessons and resources for you to learn Polish with ease. Our audio and video recordings with native speakers will keep you interested and entertained. Are you ready to polish your Polish? Start your free account with us today.

Don’t go yet! In the comments section, tell us what the comparative and superlative forms of the adverb zwyczajnie are, based on what you’ve learned today. Good luck!

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Polish Verb Conjugation Rules for Beginners

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Learning vocabulary is very important, but to improve your language skills, you need to know certain grammar rules too. For example, to be able to speak Polish properly, you have to learn the rules of Polish verb conjugation. 

You may be wondering what a verb conjugation is. Don’t worry! We’ve prepared this article so that even an absolute beginner can learn the basic Polish verb conjugation rules.

Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Verb Conjugation: Introduction
  2. Conjugation Verb Groups
  3. The Conjugation of “To Be” in Polish
  4. Polish Verb Conjugation in the Past Tense
  5. Let’s Talk About the Future
  6. Polish Conjugation Practice
  7. Final Thoughts

1. Verb Conjugation: Introduction

A Girl in Glasses Holding a Tablet

When a verb is conjugated, it means that it has different forms, depending on certain factors. In Polish, these factors are: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, and grammatical gender. In the following sections, we’ll be going over each of these Polish language conjugation factors.

1- Tense

In modern Polish, there are three tenses:

  • The past tense (czas przeszły) — “I bought bread.” (Kupiłam chleb.)
  • The present tense (czas teraźniejszy) — “I’m eating breakfast.” (Jem śniadanie.) 

The present tense can also be used for talking about your daily routine in Polish

  • The future tense (czas przyszły) — “I’ll go away in a week.” (Wyjadę za tydzień.)

This is very different than English, which has an astonishing number of sixteen tenses. 

2- Aspect

Grammatical aspect is more prevalent in some languages than others. In Polish, there’s:

  • An imperfective (niedokonany) aspect, used for uncompleted actions and actions that are habitual. The imperfective aspect exists in the past, present, and future tenses.
  • A perfective (dokonany) aspect, used for completed actions. This one doesn’t exist in the present tense.

3- Mood

There are three moods in Polish:

  • The indicative mood, used for statements
  • The imperative mood, used for orders
  • The conditional mood, which refers to possibilities

Today, we’ll focus on the indicative mood.

4- Person and Number

Grammatical person and number go together in Polish verb conjugation. There are six grammatical persons and two numbers in Polish. Have a look at the chcieć (“to want”) Polish conjugation in the present tense:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja chcę (“I want”)my chcemy (“we want”)
ty chcesz (“you want”)wy chcecie (“you want”)
on, ona, ono chce (“he, she, it wants”)oni, one chcą (“they want”)

It’s important to remember that the personal pronoun is often dropped in Polish. That’s because the form of the verb is enough to tell who the subject is. A pronoun is used only when it’s needed to avoid ambiguities. 

Compare these examples:

  • Chcę coś powiedzieć. (“I want to say something.”)

It’s clear that “I” is the subject because of the verb form.

  • Chce coś powiedzieć. (“[He/she/it] wants to say something.”)

In this case, we would add the appropriate pronoun to indicate who the subject is, unless it’s easy to guess from the context. For instance, you could be standing next to a man, in which case the subject would remain understandable and the pronoun could be omitted. 

5- Gender 

In the singular, Polish has three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. In the plural, there are two: masculine personal and non-masculine personal. For simplicity, we’ll be referring to the masculine personal gender as masculine, and the non-masculine gender as feminine. 

Gender can influence the form of the verb in some cases. The table above shows the conjugation of a verb in the present tense, where gender has no bearing. Nevertheless, there’s a number of cases where gender matters. For example, in the conditional mood and in the past tense.

Before we move on, keep in mind that this article focuses on Polish conjugation rules; if you’re looking for more verbs to learn, check out the resource 100 Most Common Polish Verbs for Beginners.  

2. Conjugation Verb Groups

A Notebook with Exercises

Polish conjugation patterns are grouped according to what the first and second person singular look like. There are four main conjugation groups, but certain sources mention as many as eleven. 

1- Conjugation I

The first Polish conjugation pattern uses the ending in the first person singular and -esz in the second person singular. Here’s the Polish conjugation table for the verb kopać, meaning “to kick” or “to dig”:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja kopię (“I kick”)my kopiemy (“we kick”)
ty kopiesz (“you kick”)wy kopiecie (“you kick”)
on, ona, ono kopie (“he, she, it kicks”)oni, one kopią (“they kick”)

Example: Kopiemy czy nie? (“Are we digging or not?”)

Other verbs that conjugate according to this pattern include: 

  • pisać (“to write”)
    Piszę list. (“I’m writing a letter.”)
  • dawać (“to give”)
    Daję radę. (“I’m managing.”)
  • nieść (“to carry”)
    Niosę walizki. (“I’m carrying suitcases.”)
  • płakać (“to cry”)
    Nie płaczę. (“I’m not crying.”)

The examples above show you why you need to know the form of the first person singular to be able to predict the conjugation pattern. As you can see, the first person differs from the infinitive form in a way that’s difficult to predict. 

2- Conjugation II

Second conjugation verbs in the first person singular also end in . Fortunately, the second person singular with -isz and -ysz endings come in handy here in differentiating the two. Here’s a Polish verb conjugation table for the second group, using the verb robić, meaning “to do” or “to make”:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja robię (“I do”)my robimy (“we do”)
ty robisz (“you do”)wy robicie (“you do”)
on, ona, ono robi (“he, she, it does”)oni, one robią (“they do”)

Example: Robię pranie. (“I’m doing the laundry.”)

Some other verbs that conjugate according to the second conjugation pattern are: 

  • płacić (“to pay”)
    Płacisz mi. (“You pay me.”)
  • ganić (“to scold”)
    Ganisz swoje dzieci? (“Do you scold your children?”)
  • wrócić (“to come back”)
    Wrócisz jutro? (“Will you come back tomorrow?”)
  • suszyć (“to dry”)
    Suszysz pranie w mieszkaniu? (“Are you drying your clothes at your flat?”)

3- Conjugation III

The third Polish conjugation pattern uses the ending -(a)m in the first person singular, and the ending -a(sz) in the second person singular. Have a look at this Polish conjugation table of the verb grać (“to play”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja gram (“I play”)my gramy (“we play”)
ty grasz (“you play”)wy gracie (“you play”)
on, ona, ono gra (“he, she, it plays”)oni, one gra (“they play”)

Example: Gram w tenisa. (“I play tennis.”)

Here are some additional verbs that follow the third conjugation pattern: 

  • czytać (“to read”)
    Czytam książkę. (“I’m reading a book.”)
  • mieć (“to have”)
    Nie mam dzieci. (“I don’t have children.”)
  • padać (“to fall”)
    Pada śnieg. (“It’s snowing.”) [literally: “Snow is falling.”]
  • wołać (“to call”) [when you want someone to come to you]
    Wołam Cię! (“I’m calling you!”)

4- Conjugation IV

The last Polish conjugation pattern uses -(e)m in the first person, and -(e)sz in the second person singular. Here’s a Polish verb conjugation table for the verb wiedzieć (“to know”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja wiem (“I know”)my wiemy (“we know”)
ty wiesz (“you know”)wy wiecie (“you know”)
on, ona, ono wie (“he, she, it knows”)oni, one wiedzą (“they know”)

Example: Wiesz kto to? (“Do you know who this is?”)

A Question Mark

The fourth conjugation group is the rarest one. Here are two more verbs conjugated according to this pattern: 

  • jeść (“to eat”)
    Jem obiad. (“I’m eating lunch.”)
  • umieć (“to know [how to do something]”)
    Umiem czytać. (“I can [know how to] read.”)

Remember that to know how to conjugate Polish verbs, you need the first (and preferably the second) form of the singular. 

3. The Conjugation of “To Be” in Polish

Top Verbs

The form of the first person singular in Polish often differs from the infinitive, but no form is as different as that of the irregular verb “to be.” Here’s a Polish conjugation table for być (“to be”) in the present tense:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja jestem (“I am”)my jesteśmy (“we are”)
ty jesteś (“you are”)wy jesteście (“you are”)
on, ona, ono jest (“he, she, it is”)oni, one (“they are”)

Example: Jesteśmy szczęśliwi. (“We’re happy.”)

Perhaps not surprisingly, this verb in the past tense also has an unpredictable form. In the table below, you can find the right way to conjugate the Polish verb być in the feminine gender:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja byłam (“I was”)my byłyśmy (“we were”)
ty byłaś (“you were”)wy byłyście (“you were”)
ona była (“she was”)one były (“they were”)

Example: Byłam na Ciebie zła. (“I was angry with you.”)

You can find the forms for the masculine gender below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja byłem (“I was”)my byliśmy (“we were”)
ty byłeś (“you were”)wy byliście (“you were”)
on był (“he, she, it was”)oni byli (“they were”)

The form for the third person singular ono (“it”) is było

Example: Byliśmy w domu. (“We were at home.”)

As you can see, the form for the Polish past tense conjugation is completely different. Now, let’s have a look at this verb in the future tense:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja będę (“I will be”)my będziemy (“we will be”)
ty będziesz (“you will be”)wy będziecie (“you will be”)
on, ona, ono będzie (“he, she, it will be”)oni, one będą (“they will be”)

Example: Będziesz grzeczny? (“Will you be nice?”)

Remember to learn these forms by heart; it’s important to know how to conjugate the top ten Polish verbs, including this one. In fact, why don’t you learn with us the top 25 Polish verbs straight away? 

4. Polish Verb Conjugation in the Past Tense

Ruins

The Polish past tense is useful for talking about past events and Polish history. What are the Polish verb conjugation rules for the past tense? We’ll have a look at some Polish verb conjugation tables, using the examples we’ve already discussed for the Polish present tense conjugations. The first conjugation table is applicable to feminine subjects:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja kopałam (“I kicked”)my kopałyśmy (“we kicked”)
ty kopałaś (“you kicked”)wy kopałyście (“you kicked”)
ona kopała (“she kicked”)one kopały (“they kicked”)

Example: Kopałam piłkę. (“I was kicking the ball.”)

Masculine subjects require the following changes to their endings:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja kopałem (“I kicked”)my kopaliśmy (“we kicked”)
ty kopałeś (“you kicked”)wy kopaliście (“you kicked”)
on kop (“he kicked”)oni kopali (“they kicked”)

Example: Kopaliście doły. (“You were digging holes.”)

The form for neuter in the third person singular would be kopało.

Example: Dziecko kopało psa. (“The child was kicking a dog.”)

Now, look at the forms of the verb “to do” (robić) for feminine subjects:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja robiłam (“I did”)my robiłyśmy (“we did”)
ty robiłaś (“you did”)wy robiłyście (“you did”)
ona robiła (“she did”)one robiły (“they did”)

For masculine subjects, we’ll have the same changes as in the previous masculine examples:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja robiłem (“I did”)my robiliśmy (“we did”)
ty robiłeś (“you did”)wy robiliście (“you did”)
on rob (“he did”)oni robili (“they did”)

The forms of the first person singular for grać (“to play”) are grałam and grałem for feminine and masculine subjects, respectively. For wiedzieć (“to know”), the forms are wiedziałam and wiedziałem. Can you predict the rest of the forms in the past tense? Let us know your answers in the comments’ section!

1- Perfective and Imperfective Aspects

We mentioned aspects in the introduction, but it’s important to understand how they work in practice. The English verb “to buy,” for instance, has two equivalents in Polish: kupić and kupować. Kupić is a perfective verb, while kupować is imperfective. Compare: 

  • Kupiłam chleb w tym sklepie. (“I bought bread in this shop.”) [female speaker]

It’s a completed, once-off action and an example of the perfective aspect.

  • Kupowałam chleb w tym sklepie. (“I used to buy/had been buying bread in this shop.”) [female speaker]

The action here is not defined as completed, but repetitive. Maybe I used to buy bread in this shop, or I had been buying it, until something happened. The point is that, in the past, I repeatedly bought bread in this shop.

Have a look at another possible use of the imperfective form: 

  • Kupowałam chleb w tym sklepie, gdy ktoś krzyknął. (“I was buying bread in this shop, when someone shouted.”) [female speaker]
Loaves of Bread in a Basket

As you can see, aspects are crucial in Polish. More often than not, there are (at least) two Polish verbs for one English one. How do you know which one is which? You have to learn it by heart. Fortunately, there are certain regularities, so you should be able to get the hang of it with practice. 

5. Let’s Talk About the Future

More Essential Verbs

Are you wondering how to conjugate Polish verbs in the future tense? There are three ways to form the future tense in Polish: one for the perfective verbs, and two for imperfective verbs. Now, let’s look at some examples of the conjugation of Polish verbs for future tense.

1- Perfective Verbs in the Future Tense

I have some good news for you! In the case of perfective endings, the forms are very easy to predict when you know the rules of the Polish present tense conjugation. 

We’ve already discussed the conjugation of the verb robić (“to do” and “to make”) in the present. It’s an imperfective verb, as it has a present form. Another verb for “to do” is zrobić in the perfective aspect. You can find the forms in the Polish conjugation table below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja zrobię (“I will do”)my zrobimy (“we will do”)
ty zrobisz (“you will do”)wy zrobicie (“you will do”)
on, ona, ono zrobi (“he, she, it will do”)oni, one zrobią (“they will do”)

You can see that the perfective verbs follow the same Polish conjugation patterns as verbs in the present tense. 

Example: Zrobimy dla Ciebie pierogi. (“We’ll make pierogi for you.”)

Can you eat Polish food? If you don’t know what pierogi are or whether you can eat them, you should certainly check out our lesson about the top 5 Polish dishes

2- Imperfective Verbs in the Future Tense

There are two Polish future tense conjugation patterns for perfective verbs. We’re going to have a look at the forms for robić again for ease of comparison. 

First of all, you should remember that the future forms for imperfective verbs need a “helping” verb. This is one of the forms of the Polish “to be” conjugation in the future, which we discussed earlier. Here are two conjugations of Polish verbs in the future tense for imperfective verbs:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja będę robić (“I will do”)my będziemy robić (“we will do”)
ty będziesz robić (“you will do”)wy będziecie robić (“you will do”)
on, ona, ono będzie robić (“he, she, it will do”)oni, one będą robić (“they will do”)

The first version requires the infinitive form of the second verb, which makes it very easy to use. There’s no difference in how often this version is used compared to the second version, so the former is a better choice for beginners.

A Road Sign with

The second pattern requires changes to the second verb, and these changes depend on the subject’s gender. For feminine subjects, this conjugation looks like this:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja będę robiła (“I will do”)my będziemy robiły (“we will do”)
ty będziesz robiła (“you will do”)wy będziecie robiły (“you will do”)
ona będzie robiła (“she will do”)one będą robiły (“they will do”)

For the masculine gender, the conjugation pattern changes to:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja będę robił (“I will do”)my będziemy robili (“we will do”)
ty będziesz robił (“you will do”)wy będziecie robili (“you will do”)
on będzie robił (“he, she, it will do”)oni będą robili (“they will do”)

For neuter, the third person singular would be ono będzie robiło

6. Polish Conjugation Practice

Today you’ve learned how to conjugate in Polish. Now it’s time for a bit of language practice with our quick quiz: 

1. Ja (kupować) ____________ dziś mleko.   

“I bought milk today.” (male speaker)

    a) kupiłam
    b) kupię
    c) kupiłem
    d) kupić

2. On (grać) _____________ w piłkę nożną.

“I play football.” 

    a) wygram
    b) grałam
    c) gra
    d) grasz

3. My (być) _______________ Polakami. 

“We are Polish.”

    a) jestem
    b) jesteście
    c) jesteś
    d) jesteśmy

4. Ty (zrobić) ______________ sałatkę. 

“You’ll make a salad.”

    a) zrobię
    b) zrobimy
    c) zrobisz
    d) robicie

5. Oni (chcieć) _____________ spać. 

“They want to sleep.”

    a) chcą
    b) chcemy
    c) zrobimy
    d) chcę

Now think about the answers…

Keep scrolling…

Hourglass

1. Ja (kupować) __kupiłem___ dziś mleko.   

“I bought milk today.” (male speaker)

Ja is the first person singular, so we need that form for the past tense in the masculine gender.

    a) kupiłam – first person singular, past tense, feminine gender
    b) kupię – first person singular, future tense
    c) kupiłem – first person singular, past tense, masculine gender
    d) kupić – infinitive, imperfective aspect

2. On (grać) ____gra_________ w piłkę nożną.

“He plays football.” 

On is the third person singular, so we need the form of the present tense. 

    a) wygram – first person singular, future tense, the verb is wrong (wygrać)
    b) grałam – first person singular, past tense, feminine gender
    c) gra – third person singular, present tense
    d) grasz – second person singular, present tense

3. My (być) ___jesteśmy________ Polakami. 

“We are Polish.”

    a) jestem – first person singular, present tense
    b) jesteście – second person plural, present tense
    c) jesteś – second person singular, present tense
    d) jesteśmy – first person plural, present tense

4. Ty (zrobić) __zrobisz_____ sałatkę. 

“You’ll make a salad.”

Ty is the second person singular, so we need its form in the future tense. 

    a) zrobię – first person singular, future tense
    b) zrobimy – first person plural, future tense
    c) zrobisz – second person singular, future tense
    d) robicie – second person plural, present tense, wrong verb (robić)

5. Oni (chcieć) ____chcą_____  spać. 

“They want to sleep.”

Oni is the third person plural, so we need the form of the present tense. 

    a) chcąthird person plural, present tense
    b) chcemy – first person plural, present tense
    c) zrobimy – first person plural, future tense, wrong verb (zrobić)
    d) chcę – first person singular, present tense

7. Final Thoughts

Today, you’ve learned all about how to conjugate Polish verbs in the present, past, and future, taking into account numerous variables. 

Now that you know the grammar rules of the chcieć Polish conjugation and others, you may want to learn some additional verbs to expand your vocabulary. We recommend you check out this list of the Top 20 Polish Verbs

If you’re ever in doubt when it comes to the right form of the verb, don’t guess. Use an online conjugation tool such as cooljugator instead. 

We hope you found this resource helpful. If you want to get access to many more Polish learning tools and materials, start a free trial with PolishPod101. Learn the language with audio and video lessons featuring real teachers, use our word of the day service, and more!

Before you go, please remember to let us know how well you managed to do on the test in the comments section! 🙂

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The 100 Most Common Polish Verbs for Beginners

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A verb is a crucial part of any sentence. Today, we’re going to introduce you to the most commonly used Polish verbs, the basic rules governing their placement in a sentence, and their conjugation. By the time you finish this article, you’ll be able to see massive progress in your Polish-speaking abilities! 
Other similarly useful articles you should have a look at are: 100 Adjectives (link) and 100 Nouns (link).

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Using Polish Verbs in a Sentence
  2. Polish Verb Conjugation Rules
  3. Polish Verbs of Motion and Action
  4. Verbs for Talking About Feelings, Thoughts, and Preferences
  5. Polish Modal Verbs
  6. Final Thoughts

1. Using Polish Verbs in a Sentence 

A Person Writing on a Chalkboard

We’re not going to go into much detail, but it’s important that you understand certain concepts about Polish language verbs so that you can use them correctly.

A. Various Forms of Polish Verbs

Before we start introducing you to new Polish verbs, we’d like you to understand that they can have different forms. Polish verbs are modified depending on the:

  • Tense

There are three modern Polish verb tenses: the past tense (czas przeszły), the present tense (czas teraźniejszy), and the future tense (czas przyszły). For the purpose of this article, we’ll focus on one of the Polish verb tenses: the present tense. 

  • Aspect

There are two aspects in Polish: imperfective (niedokonany) referring to incomplete actions, and perfective (dokonany) referring to complete actions. 

  • Mood  

There are three moods of Polish verbs: indicative, imperative, and conditional. 

  • Person and Number

Each person, depending on the number, has a form of the verb attributed to it. This is why personal pronouns are often dropped in Polish. If you’d like to know more about Polish pronouns, we’ve written a whole article about them (link). 

Some verb forms differ depending on the gender of the person to whom the verb is referring. This is relevant, for example, when creating forms in the past tense. 

B. Verb Placement in a Sentence

Where do you place a verb in an affirmative sentence in Polish? It’s quite easy, as Polish uses a similar sentence structure as English:

Subject + Verb + Object (SVO)

  • “I’ve eaten a banana.”

Ja zjadłam banana

As we’ve mentioned before, pronouns in Polish are often dropped. This is why it would be more natural to get rid of the pronoun “I” (ja), and say:

  • Zjadłam banana.
a Bunch of Bananas

If you’re not a fan of bananas, find the name of your favorite fruit or vegetable on our food vocabulary list. Now, to form a question, we just have to add the word czy before this sentence:

  • “Have I eaten a banana?”

Czy zjadłam banana? 

While in English, you use different words depending on the context, such as “does,” “do,” and “did,” in Polish you always use czy. Czy is also often dropped, especially in speech:

  • Zjadłam banana? 

To learn more about questions in Polish, check out our list of “Top 25 Polish Questions You Need to Know.” 

2. Polish Verb Conjugation Rules 

Top Verbs

Verbs in Polish are conjugated and there are four conjugation groups. So how does Polish conjugation work?

Well, Polish verb conjugation rules are a bit different than those in many other languages. Namely, the verbs aren’t grouped according to the verbs’ endings. To know a conjugation pattern, you need at least the first-person singular. 


It may come in handy to have a Polish verbs PDF with conjugation patterns. You can create one by choosing “Print” and “Save as PDF” from your browser settings on this page. Here are three other ways to convert a webpage to PDF

A. Conjugation I

Have a look at the first conjugation. It’s defined by the form of the first-person singular ending in ę and the second-person singular ending in esz. We’ll use the verb pisać (“to write”) as an example in the Polish verb conjugation chart below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja piszę (“I write”)my piszemy (“we write”)
ty piszesz (“you write”)wy piszecie (“you write”)
On / ona / ono pisze (“he / she / it writes”)oni, one piszą (“they write”)
  • Ona pisze list

“She’s writing a letter.” 

Some other verbs that follow this conjugation pattern are: 

1- Nieść (“to carry”)


Niosę walizki

“I’m carrying the suitcases.” 

2- Kopać (“to kick”) or (“to dig”)

Kopię dół

“I’m digging a hole.”

3- Dawać (“to give”)

Dajemy prezent Annie

“We’re giving a present to Anna.”

4- Płakać (“to cry”)

Płaczę przez Ciebie

“I’m crying because of you.”

B. Conjugation II

The second conjugation is associated with different Polish verb endings: the first-person singular ending is ę and the second-person singular ending is isz or ysz. We’ll examine this by looking at the Polish verb conjugation table for płacić (“to pay”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja płacę (“I pay”)my płacimy (“we pay”)
ty płacisz (“you pay”)wy płacicie (“you pay”)
on / ona / ono płaci (“he / she / it pays”)oni, one płacą (“they pay”)
  • Ja płacę! 

“I’m paying!”

Two People Sitting at the Table in a Restaurant, One Person Asks for the Bill

Other verbs following the same conjugation pattern are: 

1- Ganić (“to scold”)

Dlaczego mnie ganisz? 

“Why are you scolding me?”

2- Suszyć (“to dry”)

Czy suszysz włosy? 

“Are you drying your hair?” 

3- Robić (“to do”)

No i co mi zrobisz? 

“And what will/can you do to me?”

4- Wrócić (“to come back”)

Nigdy nie wrócę! 

“I’ll never come back!”

C. Conjugation III

It’s time to learn more about the third conjugation pattern, where the first-person singular ends in -(a)m and the second-person singular in -(a)sz. Below, you’ll find the Polish verb conjugation table for czytać (“to read”): 

SINGULARPLURAL
ja czytam (“I read”)my czytamy (“we read”)
ty czytasz (“you read”)wy czytacie (“you read”)
on / ona / ono czyta (“he / she / it reads”)oni, one czytają (“they read”)
  • Czytasz gazety? 

“Do you read newspapers?”

Other verbs following the same conjugation pattern include the following: 

1- Padać (“to fall”)

Pada deszcz

“It’s raining.” (Literally: “Rain is falling.”)

2- Grać (“to play”)

Gramy w bingo

“We’re playing bingo.” 

3- Mieć (“to have”)

Czy macie dzieci? 

“Do you have children?”

4- Wołać (“to call [someone to come])

Wołam i wołam! 

“I’m calling and calling!”

D. Conjugation IV

This is the fourth and final regular Polish verb conjugation you may encounter. The form of the first-person singular is -(e)m and the form of the second-person singular is -(e)sz. Have a look at its forms for the verb jeść (“to eat”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja jem (“I eat”)my jemy (“we eat”)
ty jesz (“you eat”)wy jecie (“you eat”)
on / ona / ono je (“he / she / it eats”)oni, one jedzą (“they eat”)
  • Jem gruszkę

“I’m eating a pear.”

Here are some other Polish verbs that fall under this pattern:

1- Umieć (“to know how to”)

Umiem liczyć

“I can count.” 

2- Wiedzieć (“to know”)

Wiem o Tobie sporo

“I know a lot about you.”

E. The Irregular Polish Verb “To Be”

The most important verb in any language, “to be,” is an example of an irregular Polish verb conjugation. To be (być) or not to be (czy nie być)? 

A Question Mark on a Birthday Cake

Find out in the table below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja jestem (“I am”)my jesteśmy (“we are”)
ty jesteś (“you are”)wy jesteście (“you are”)
on / ona / ono jest (“he / she / it is”)oni, one (“they are”)
  • Ona jest zła. 

“She’s angry.” 

The extremely important verb być is linked to a number of expressions. Click on the link to learn more about them. 

Are there any other Polish irregular verbs apart from the Polish verb “to be?” Yes and no. Most verbs that don’t follow a pattern from any Polish verb conjugation table we’ve included are only partial exceptions. A form, or forms, may be different, but the verb still mostly follows one of the conjugation patterns.

Polish verb conjugation rules require a lot of practice, but you can do it! If in doubt, you can always use one of the online conjugation resources, such as Cooljugator or Ba.bla, that give you a nice breakdown of forms according to Polish verb tenses and other variables.

3. Polish Verbs of Motion and Action

More Essential Verbs

To kick off our Polish verbs list, this is a category of Polish verbs that’s very important. Verbs of motion and action (as well as those indicating the lack thereof) are the most common verbs in any language. Here’s a list of the most important ones with examples:

VERBEXAMPLE
Iść (“to go”)Idę do pracy
“I’m going to work.”
Chodzić (“to walk”)

This verb has many derivatives due to changes to the prefix. Click on the link to learn more about them.
Chodzę po domu
“I’m walking around the house.”
Skakać (“to jump”)Skaczesz wysoko
“You jump high.”
Biegać (“to run”)Biegam wolno
“I run slowly.”
Łapać (“to catch”)Łapię piłkę
“I’m catching the ball.”
Uderzać (“to hit”)Uderzasz w stół
“You’re hitting the table.”
Rzucać (“to throw”)Rzucę Ci piłkę
“I’ll throw the ball to you.”
Czekać (“to wait”)Czekasz na kogoś? 
“Are you waiting for someone?”
Rysować (“to draw”)Co rysujesz
“What are you drawing?”
Nalewać (“to pour”)Nalewasz nam soku
“You’re pouring us some juice.”
Ciągnąć (“to drag”) / (“to pull”)Ciągniesz za mocno. 
“You’re pulling too hard.”
Pchać (“to push”)Pcham wózek
“I’m pushing a trolley.”
Podnosić (“to lift”) / (“to raise”)Podnosisz głos niepotrzebnie
“You’re unnecessarily raising your voice.”
Odłożyć (“to put down”)Odłożę to na miejsce
“I’ll put it in its place.”
Zamknąć (“to close”)Czy zamkniesz drzwi? 
“Will you close the door?”
Otworzyć (“to open”)Otworzyłam słoik
“I’ve opened a jar.”
Trzymać (“to hold”)Trzymasz psa? 
“Are you holding the dog?”
Stać (“to stand”)Stoję w kolejce
“I’m standing in a queue.”
Siedzieć (“to sit”)Siedzisz przy stole. 
“You sit at the table.”
Klaskać (“to clap”)Klaszczę do rytmu
“I’m clapping to the beat.”
Tańczyć (“to dance”)Czy tańczysz tango? 
“Do you dance tango?”
Machać (“move [in slang]”) / (“wave [with a hand]”)Leżeć (“to lie down”)Leżę na podłodze
“I’m lying down on the floor.”
Pić (“to drink”)Piję colę
“I’m drinking a Coke.”
Gotować (“to cook”)Gotujesz kolację
“You’re cooking dinner.”
Przygotowywać (“to prepare”)Przygotowujesz konia? 
“Are you preparing the horse?”
Budzić się (“to wake up”)Budzę się rano. 
“I wake up in the morning.”
Malować (“to paint”)Maluję obraz
“I’m painting (a painting).”
Narzekać (“to complain”)Ciągle narzekasz
“You’re complaining all the time.”
Latać (“to fly”)Dokąd lecisz
“Where are you flying to?”
Wspinać się (“to climb”)Wspinam się po górach
“I climb mountains.”
Przyjść (“to come”)Rozciągasz się po jodze. 
“You’re stretching after yoga.”
Przyjść (“to come”)Czy przyjdziesz jutro? 
“Will you come tomorrow?”
Uciekać (“to run away”)Nie uciekam
“I’m not running away.”
Wyjść (“to go out”) / (“to leave”)Zaraz wyjdę z domu
“I’ll leave the house in a minute.”
Zostać (“to stay”)Zostajesz w szkole
“You’re staying at school.”
Oglądać (“to watch”)Oglądam telewizję.
“I watch TV.”
Wąchać (“to smell”)Wącham kwiaty. 
“I’m smelling the flowers.”
Czyścić (“to clean”)Czyszczę podłogę. 
“I’m cleaning the floor.”
Próbować (“to try”) / (“to taste”)Spróbujesz zupy? 
“Will you taste the soup?”
Bawić się (“to play”)Bawię się z dziećmi. 
“I’m playing with the kids.”
Pytać (“to ask”)Pytam go o zdanie. 
“I’m asking him about his opinion.”
Odpowiedzieć (“to answer”)Odpowiesz na moje pytanie? 
“Will you answer my question?”
Mówić (“to speak”)Mówię powoli. 
“I speak slowly.”
Opowiadać (“to tell”)Opowiadam historię. 
“I’m telling a story.”

https://wordlist.languagepod101.com/wordlist/media/17388&v=medium.jpg (a list of verbs)

All of these Polish motion verbs examples are either in the first- or second-person singular so that you know which conjugation they’re likely to follow. If you would like a Polish verbs PDF, you can click “Print” on your browser and “Save as PDF” to have access to the article whenever you need it.

4. Verbs for Talking About Feelings, Thoughts, and Preferences

Negative Verbs

More useful Polish verbs are those used for talking about feelings, thoughts, and preferences. This section will cover the top Polish verbs you should know to talk about these subjects! 

Tell Me About Your Feelings in Polish

Here’s a number of useful verbs for talking about your feelings, both positive and negative, in Polish: 

VERBEXAMPLE
Positive feelings:
Lubić (“to like”)Lubię psy
“I like dogs.”
Kochać (“to love”)Kochasz mnie? 
“Do you love me?”
Uwielbiać (“to adore”)Uwielbiam festiwale filmowe! 
“I love film festivals!”
Przepadać (“to really like”)Przepadam za teatrem
“I really like theatre.”
Cieszyć się (“to be happy [for]”)Cieszysz się? 
“Are you happy?”
Uśmiechać się (“to smile”)Uśmiecham się często
“I smile often.”
Śmiać się (“to laugh”)Lubię, gdy się śmiejesz
“I like when you laugh.”
Zakochać się (“to fall in love”)Zakocham się
“I’ll fall in love.”
Podziwiać (“to admire”)Podziwiam Cię! 
“I admire you.”
Dogadywać się (“to get on well”)(Dobrze) dogaduję się z nim
“I get on well with him.” 

“Well” (dobrze) is often added for emphasis.
Czuć (“to feel”)Czujesz to? 
“Do you feel it?”
Woleć (“to prefer”)Wolę zostać w domu. 
“I prefer to stay home.”
Interesować się (“to be interested in”)Interesuję się dinozaurami. 
“I’m interested in dinosaurs.”
Pasjonować się (“to have a passion for”)On pasjonuje się historią. 
“He’s passionate about history.”
Negative feelings:
Nienawidzić (“to hate”)Nienawidzę jej! 
“I hate her!”
Bać się (“to be scared of”)Boisz się? 
“Are you scared?”
Złościć się (“to get angry”)Złoszczę się bez powodu
“I get angry without a reason.”
Kłócić się (“to have arguments”)Kłócisz się z ojcem? 
“Do you have arguments with (your) father?”
Denerwować się (“to be nervous about”)Denerwuję się trochę
“I’m a bit nervous about it.”
Brzydzić się (“to detest”) / (“to be disgusted by”)Brzydzisz się karaluchów? 
“Are you disgusted by cockroaches?”
Wyśmiewać się (“to laugh at”)Wyśmiewasz się ze mnie
“You’re laughing at me.”
Wstydzić się (“to be ashamed”) / (“to be embarrassed”)Wstydzę się
“I’m ashamed of myself.”
Czerwienić się (“to blush”)Czy często się czerwienisz
“Do you blush often?”
Zazdrościć (“to be jealous”) / (“to envy”)Naprawdę mi zazdrościsz
“Do you really envy me?”
Żałować (“to regret”)Nie żałuję tego. 
“I don’t regret it.”
Martwić się (“to worry”)Za dużo się martwisz.  
“You worry too much.”
A Person Saying

We’ve only included negative verbs that are verbs in their own right. To express a negative feeling, you can also simply use the negation nie (“no”):

  • Nie lubię truskawek

“I don’t like strawberries.”

That’s a lot of useful Polish verbs, right? 

What Do You Think About It?

Expressing your thoughts and opinions in Polish is important for effective communication. Here’s a number of essential Polish verbs that will come in handy when doing that: 

VERBEXAMPLE
Myśleć (“to think”)Myślę, więc jestem
“I think, therefore I am.”
Sądzić (“to reckon”)Sądzisz, że on to zrobił? 
“Do you reckon he was the one who did it?”
Wierzyć (“to believe”)Wierzę, że to nieprawda
“I believe that it’s not true.”
Wątpić (“to doubt”)Wątpisz w moje słowa? 
“Do you doubt my words?”
Zgadzać się (“to agree”)Nie zgadzam się z Tobą. 
“I disagree with you.”
Zgadywać (“to guess”)Zgaduję, nie wiem na pewno. 
“I’m guessing, I don’t know for sure.”

5. Polish Modal Verbs

The last category of Polish verbs we’ll discuss today are modal verbs. They’re most often used in conjunction with another verb in the infinitive form.

VERBEXAMPLE
Móc (“can”) / (“to be able to”)Mogę Ci pomóc.  
“I can help you.”
Musieć (“have to”) / (“must”)Musisz coś zrobić! 
“You must/have to do something.”
Chcieć (“to want”)Chcę iść do kina
“I want to go to the cinema.”
Powinno się (“should”)Powinnam pójść do lekarza. 
“I should go to the doctor.”

As you can see in the table, you only conjugate the modal verb. 

6. Final Thoughts

When you’ve just started learning a language, memorizing the most important Polish verbs is a great idea. Even if you don’t always know the correct forms, people will often be able to understand what you mean from the context. There are two other lists on PolishPod101 that you can use to learn the main verbs in Polish: 25 Most Commonly Used Verbs for Any Language and 50 Most Common Verbs
With PolishPod101, you can learn much more than just the verbs. Get your free lifetime account today and start exploring countless audio and video lessons with real teachers. We offer you more than 160 hours of learning, and the best part is that you can use this language-learning tool wherever you go.

One more thing before you close your browser: What’s your favorite Polish verb? Did we miss any important ones? Let us know in the comments section!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Polish

Premium PLUS: The Golden Ticket for Language-Learning

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Do you remember the moment you fell in love with languages?

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Pronunciation is an essential ingredient in language-learning. Proper pronunciation prompts clear understanding during conversations with native speakers.

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The host asks the following question:

어디에 살고 있습니까?

eodieseo salgo isseumnikka

“Where do you live?”

If you live in Tokyo, you would readily say the following:

도쿄에 살고 있습니다.

Tokyo-e salgo isseumnida.

“I live in Tokyo.”

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Imagine having a conversation with a native speaker and hesitating because you lack a solid vocabulary base.

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An effective way to learn vocabulary is with SRS flashcards. SRS is a system designed for learning a new word and reviewing it in varying time intervals.

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With the SRS flashcards, you can change the settings to your liking. The settings range from different card types to number of new cards per deck. Personally, I give myself vocabulary tests by changing the settings.

After studying a number of flashcards, I change the card types to listening comprehension and/or production. Then I test myself by writing the translation of the word or the spoken word or phrase.

The change in settings allow me to remember vocabulary and learn how to identify the words. This is especially helpful with Japanese kanji!

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Homework assignments are advantageous to my language studies. There are homework assignments auto-generated weekly. They range from multiple-choice quizzes to writing assignments.

Language tutors are readily available for homework help. Some writing assignments, for instance, require use of unfamiliar vocabulary. In such cases, my language teachers assist me by forwarding related lessons or vocabulary lists.

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Every weekend, I review by re-reading those written sentences. It helps me remember sentence structures, grammar points, and vocabulary to apply in real-world contexts.

Furthermore, I can track my progress with language portfolios every trimester. It’s like a midterm exam that tests my listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills.

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My language teachers cater to my goals with personalized and achievable learning programs. The tangible support of my online language teachers makes it evident that we share common goals.

Once I share a short-term or long-term goal with my teacher, we establish a plan or pathway that will ultimately result in success. I coordinate with my teachers regularly to ensure the personalized learning programs are prosperous. For example, during my JLPT studies, my Japanese language tutor assigned me practice tests.

Your language tutor is available for outside help as well. When I bought drama CDs in Japan, I had difficulty transliterating the dialogue. My Japanese teacher forwarded me the script to read along as I listened.

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A remarkable thing happened to me in South Korea. I was stressed about opening a bank account with limited Korean. I sought help from my Korean teacher. She forwarded me a script of a bank conversation.

After two days, I visited the local bank. It all started with my opening sentence:

은행 계좌를 만들고 싶어요

eunhaeng gyejwaleul mandeulgo sip-eoyo.

I want to open a bank account.

Everything went smoothly, and I exited the bank with a new account!

The MyTeacher Messenger allows me to share visuals with my teachers for regular interaction, including videos to critique my pronunciation mechanisms. I improve my listening and speaking skills by exchanging audio with my teachers. In addition to my written homework assignments, I exchange messages with my language teachers in my target language. This connection with my teachers enables me to experience the culture as well as the language.

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It’s impossible for me to imagine my continuous progress with Japanese and Korean without Premium PLUS. Everything—from the SRS flashcards to my language teachers—makes learning languages enjoyable and clear-cut.

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Complete lessons and assignments to advance in your target language. Increase your vocabulary with the “2000 Core Word List” for that language and SRS flashcards. Learn on-the-go with the Innovative Language app and/or Podcasts app for iOS users.

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Subscribe to Posted by PolishPod101.com in Feature Spotlight, Learn Polish, Polish Language, Polish Online, Site Features, Speak Polish, Team PolishPod101

Polish Sentence Structure: Master the Word Order in Polish

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The Polish sentence structure is one of the most important things to study at the beginning of your language-learning journey. Constructing sentences in Polish is easy when you know the rules. So, are you ready to master the Polish word order?

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Polish Word Order: Overview
  2. Polish Word Order Rules: SVO
  3. Word Order with Adverbs
  4. Polish Word Order with Modifiers
  5. Check Your Understanding: Translation Exercise
  6. Final Thoughts

1. Polish Word Order: Overview 

Improve Pronunciation

Let’s start with the basics: the Polish sentence structure for beginners. 

The basic word order in Polish is the so-called SVO, which means that the subject comes first, followed by the verb and the object (if there is an object). 


The word order in Polish isn’t fixed, but the SVO is a very common sentence structure. Polish allows for considerable creativity, particularly for the sake of emphasis. Having said that, using the SVO structure should come naturally to you as an English speaker, so try to stick to it in the beginning.

2. Polish Word Order Rules: SVO

A Grammar-related Picture with Subject and Object Words

As we said before, the Polish word order looks like this: 

subject + verb + (object) = SV(O)

The subject in a sentence is simply the doer of an activity, which is expressed by the verb. The object is the part of a sentence that’s affected by the verb. Like in English, an object isn’t always required in Polish sentences. 

Personal pronouns are dropped in Polish when it’s clear who the “doer” is. This means that a simple sentence in Polish could consist of only a verb. For example: 

  • Czytam

“I’m reading.”

Most sentences, for obvious reasons, are more complicated than that: 

  • Czytam (v) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading a newspaper.”

To emphasize the “doer,” you can also say: 

  • Ja (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading a newspaper.”

The form of the verb czytać (“to read”) indicates that the subject is the first person singular, so it’s not really necessary to use a personal pronoun here.

Also note that Polish doesn’t have the simple or continuous aspects. This means that the same verb form is used to express both. For example: 

Czytam (v) gazetę (o). This sentence can be translated as “I’m reading a newspaper,” or “I read a newspaper.”

The meaning is derived from the context.

1- Emphasis and Word Order

From time to time, people change the word order in spoken Polish to stress a different part of the sentence: 

  • (Ja) gazetę czytam

“I’m reading a newspaper.”

This sentence stresses the fact that I’m reading a newspaper and not something else. Please remember that it’s not necessary to use a personal pronoun. When it’s there, it’s read as emphasis: It’s I (and not somebody else) who’s reading the newspaper. 

2- Different Kinds of Sentences

A Person with Exclamation Marks and a Question Mark above Her Head

The Polish sentence structure remains the same for different types of sentences, such as affirmation and negation

Affirmation

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading a newspaper.”

Negation

  • (Ja) (s) nie czytam (v) gazety (o)

“I’m not reading a newspaper.”

Nie, used for negation, always directly precedes the verb. 

Exclamatory sentences

  • Czytaj (v) gazetę (o)! 

“Read a newspaper!”

The subject is missing in this example, as it wouldn’t sound natural. 

Questions

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o)

“Am I reading a newspaper?”

Polish questions in spoken language are usually indicated by a rising tone. Sometimes in spoken Polish, and as a rule in written Polish, we add czy:

  • Czy (ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o)?

“Am I reading a newspaper?”

Czy doesn’t translate well into English as its meaning depends on the context. Have a look at the examples below:

  • Czy czytałeś gazetę? 

Were you reading a newspaper?” 

  • Czy przeczytasz gazetę? 

Will you read a newspaper?”

  • Czy on czyta gazetę? 

Does he read a newspaper?”

Remember to simply add czy in front of a sentence to form a question when you’re writing.

Now that we’ve covered the basic word order in Polish for simple sentences, let’s move on to discuss more complex ones. 

3. Word Order with Adverbs 

A Man Reading a Newspaper

In Polish language word order, we usually place adverbs before the verb they modify. Here’s a number of examples for this Polish sentence structure: 

  • (Ja) (s) szybko (a) czytam (v). 

“I read fast.”

Adverbs of manner, such as szybko (“fast”) and wolno (“slowly”), are placed in front of the verb. Would you like to learn some more adverbs? Check out our article, where you can find over 100 of them. 

  • (Ja) (s) codziennie (a) czytam (v) gazetę (o). 

“I read a newspaper every day.”

Adverbs of time and frequency are also placed after the subject, but in front of the verb, if the sentence is a full SVO in Polish. To practice adverbs of frequency, go to our lesson titled “How often do you go to the gym in Poland?

  • (Ja) czytam (v) gazetę (o) w domu

“I read a newspaper at home.”

  • (Ja) (s) w domu (a) czytam (v) gazetę (o). 

“I read a newspaper at home.”

Adverbs of place are often placed toward the end of the sentence. 

1- Change of Placement for Emphasis

The only time we’d change the structure is, yet again, for emphasis: 

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) szybko (a). 

“I read fast.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o) codziennie

“I read a newspaper every day.”

  • (Ja) (s) w domu (a) czytam (v) gazetę (o). 

“I read a newspaper at home.”

4. Polish Word Order with Modifiers

Improve Listening

Modifiers usually modify nouns, and are placed in front of them. Modifiers include adjectives, determiners, numerals, and relative clauses. Relative clauses are an exception as they’re placed after nouns. 

1- Placement of Adjectives

Adjectives describe qualities of nouns, like in the example below: 

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) ciekawą (adj) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading an interesting newspaper.”

As you can see above, the adjective breaks up the (S)VO structure, creating (S)VADJO. Have a look at some more examples: 

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) starą (adj) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading an old newspaper.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) lokalną (adj) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading a local newspaper.”

Do you want to learn more adjectives in Polish? Check out this list of high-frequency adjectives

2- Determiners and Their Placement

A Newspaper

A determiner lets you know which noun you’re talking about. Here’s an example of a determiner: 

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) (det) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading this newspaper.”

Polish determiners also include: 

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) tamtą (det) gazetę (o)

“I’m reading that newspaper.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) tamte (det) gazety (o)

“I’m reading those newspapers.”

3- Polish Word Order with Numerals

“Numerals” is a fancy word for numbers. Just like other modifiers, they’re placed in front of the noun:

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) jedną (num) gazetę (o)

“I read one newspaper.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) dwie (num) gazety (o)

“I read two newspapers.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) trzy (num) gazety (o)

“I read three newspapers.”

The pattern remains the same for all numerals. Do you know numbers in Polish well? If not, consult these pages: 

4- Polish Word Order Rules for Relative Clauses

A relative clause is an additional way to identify a noun. They’re an exception among modifiers, placed after the noun. Here’s a number of examples for Polish:

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o), którą lubię

“I’m reading a newspaper that I like.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o), którą mi poleciłeś

“I’m reading a newspaper that you’ve recommended to me.”

  • (Ja) (s) czytam (v) gazetę (o), której nie znajdziesz w wielu sklepach

“I’m reading a newspaper that you won’t find in many shops.”

The main difference between the word order in Polish vs. English for relative clauses is that Polish rarely uses non-defining relative clauses. For example: 

“My mom, whom I love deeply, lives in England.” 

A Heart

The direct translation is Moja mama, którą bardzo kocham, mieszka w Anglii, which is correct but not natural in Polish. A native speaker would be more likely to use two separate sentences to express the same idea. 

Have you noticed that relative clauses are preceded by a comma in Polish? You can learn more about Polish punctuation in the Wikipedia entry on Polish orthography

5. Check Your Understanding: Translation Exercise

Reading an article is one thing, and making sure that you understand it and can use what you’ve learned is another. This is why we’ve prepared a translation exercise for you. It will help you remember what you’ve read. Remember: practice makes perfect!

Step 1 

Translate the sentence “I eat a sandwich,” to Polish. Mark the subject, the verb, and the object. Are all parts of the sentence necessary or can you omit some? If you’re not sure, read the section Polish Word Order Rules: SVO again.

Step 2

Form a question with czy from the sentence “I eat a sandwich.”

Step 3

Add the adverb teraz (“now”) to the sentence “I eat a sandwich.”

Step 4

Add the adjective smaczną (“delicious”) in the correct form to the sentence “I eat a sandwich.” Speaking of delicious food, you should learn about the top 5 Polish dishes

Step 5

Include the determiner (“this”) to the sentence “I eat a sandwich.”

Step 6

Make the sentence “I eat a sandwich,” more specific by including the numeral jedną (“one”).

Step 7

Expand the sentence “I eat a sandwich,” by adding the relative clause którą mi kupiłeś (“that you’ve bought for me”). Don’t forget about the comma. 

A Person-shaped Figure Showing Thumbs Up with a Green Tick in Front of Them

How did it go? Was it difficult? Let us know in the comments section. 

6. Final Thoughts

Today you’ve learned a very important thing, and now you know how to form simple and more complicated sentences in Polish. You can also see the differences between the Polish vs. English sentence structures. Take your time to learn about the word order in Polish grammar, as it’s something you’ll have to build on in order to speak Polish well. 

Knowing the basic word order in Polish isn’t enough to become a fluent speaker, though. You’ll need more than that to master the language. Fortunately, PolishPod101 has everything you need! Create your lifetime account today and get access to countless audio and video lessons with native speakers. 

Remember to let us know about the results of your translation exercise before you go. 

Happy learning!

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Time in Poland: Expressions to Tell the Time in Polish

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What time is it in Poland right now? Depending on your time zone, you may have to add or subtract hours to find this out, because this Eastern European country is in the GMT+2 time zone. 


Knowing the time in Poland allows you to be punctual for meetings and events, but to communicate effectively, you also need to know how to tell the time in Polish. Fortunately for you, we’ve prepared this resource to help you learn everything you need to know about it.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Time Phrases in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Asking for the Time in Polish
  2. Hours in Polish
  3. Minutes in Polish
  4. Polish Clock Time: “Half” and “Quarter”
  5. General Time References
  6. Adverbs of Time
  7. Idiomatic Expressions, Proverbs, and Sayings
  8. Final Thoughts

1. Asking for the Time in Polish

Man Checking His Watch

When you live in Poland or visit the country for a holiday or vacation, you may be approached by a stranger asking you for the time. You don’t want to be caught off-guard in this situation. Here’s some indispensable vocabulary to help you know when someone is asking you for the time—or when you want to know the current time in Polish yourself! 

  • Która godzina? 

What time is it?

While this is the most common expression to ask about the time, godzina actually means “hour.” The word for “time” in Polish is czas

  • Przepraszam, czy wiesz która jest godzina? 

“Excuse me, do you know what time it is?” [Informal]

In the informal context, we use the second person singular of the verb wiedzieć (“to know”), which is wiesz (“you know”).

  • Przepraszam Panią, czy wie Pani, która jest godzina? 

“Excuse me, do you know what time it is?” [Formal, to a woman]

In the formal context, we use the third person singular of the same verb (wie – “he/she/it knows”) with the right form of the noun Pani (“Ma’am”) when dealing with a woman or Pan (“Sir”) when dealing with a man: 

  • Przepraszam Pana, czy wie Pan, która jest godzina? 

“Excuse me, do you know what time it is?”

There’s also another Polish expression used to ask about time: Czy masz zegarek? It translates literally as “Do you have a watch?” Remember that there’s a difference between the word “watch” (zegarek) and “clock” in Polish (zegar). 

Sometimes you have to ask about the time in a specific context, such as when you want to know what time an event or a meeting will take place. It’s important to be on time in Poland, and especially important not to be late for work as Polish people are pretty strict about it.

  • O której jest? 

“What time is…?”

spotkanie? 

“…the meeting?”

Twoja randka? 

“…your date?”

impreza? 

“…the party?”

How do you tell someone the current time or the time of an event that’s yet to come? You’ll find out in the next section. If you’d like to know survival phrases related to time, such as “What time does the museum open?“, spend some time exploring PolishPod101. 

2. Hours in Polish 

An Alarm Clock

Although in Polish, both the twelve-hour clock and the twenty-four-hour clock are used, the twenty-four-hour clock is preferred in formal communication. Let’s first focus on the twelve-hour clock, which is used in many English-speaking countries. 

1- Twelve-hour Clock 

Does six o’clock mean six o’clock in the morning in Polish, or in the evening? As you can see, using the twelve-hour clock may cause confusion. This is why, when the context isn’t clear, you should clarify what time of day you mean by adding certain expressions, similar to A.M. and P.M. in English: 

  • Dwunasta 

“12 o’clock”

  • Dwunasta w nocy / Północ 

“Twelve at night” / “Midnight”

  • Dwunasta w południe / Południe 

“12 P.M.” / “Midday” / “Noon”


Both “midnight” and “midday” are an exception to the rule, but otherwise, the way to say A.M. and P.M. in Polish is predictable. 

  • Pierwsza 

“1 o’clock”

  • Pierwsza rano 

“1 A.M.

  • Pierwsza po południu 

“1 P.M.

The next hours follow the same pattern as “1 o’clock.” So to express “A.M.,” we add rano after the name of the hour; to express “P.M.,” we add po południu.

  • Druga 

“2 o’clock”

  • Trzecia 

“3 o’clock”

  • Czwarta 

“4 o’clock”

  • Piąta 

“5 o’clock”

From six P.M. onwards, you don’t say szósta po południu, but szósta wieczorem meaning “6 in the evening”: 

  • Szósta 

“6 o’clock”

  • Szósta wieczorem 

“6 P.M.”

The pattern of saying “in the evening” in Polish continues for the remaining hours:

  • Siódma 

“7 o’clock”

  • Ósma 

“8 o’clock”

  • Dziewiąta 

“9 o’clock”

  • Dziesiąta 

“10 o’clock”

  • Jedenasta 

“11 o’clock”

How do you use them in a sentence? It’s very simple. Have a look: 

  • Która jest godzina w Polsce? 

“What is the time in Poland?”

  • Jest jedenasta rano. 

It’s 11 A.M.”

  • Jest ósma wieczorem. 

It’s 8 P.M.”

In other words, we simply use the conjugated verb jest and add the hour with or without the indicator for A.M./P.M. Just like in English, in Polish, people often use numbers instead of full written words (e.g. for “7 A.M.” they’d write 7 rano instead of siódma rano). 

2- Twenty-four-hour clock

A Hand Reaching for An Alarm Clock

Talking about the time using the twenty-four-hour clock is much simpler. It’s also less confusing as there are twenty-four hours in a day. When you name one of these hours, there’s no doubt what you mean:

  • Która godzina? 

“What time is it?”

  • Jest… 

“It’s…”

północ – 00:00 – “midnight”

pierwsza – 01:00 – “…1 A.M.”

…druga – 02:00 – “…2 A.M.”

trzecia – 03:00 – “…3 A.M.”

czwarta – 04:00 – “…4 A.M.”

piąta – 05:00 – “…5 A.M.”

szósta – 06:00 – “…6 A.M.”

siódma – 07:00 – “…7 A.M.”

ósma – 08:00 – “8 A.M.”

dziewiąta – 09:00 – “9 A.M.”

dziesiąta – 10:00 – “10 A.M.”

…jedenasta – 11:00 – “11 A.M.”

…dwunasta – 12:00 – “12 P.M.”

…trzynasta – 13:00 – “1 P.M.”

…czternasta – 14:00 – “2 P.M.”

…piętnasta – 15:00 – “3 P.M.”

…szesnasta – 16:00 – “4 P.M.”

…siedemnasta – 17:00 – “5 P.M.”

…osiemnasta – 18:00 – “6 P.M.”

dziewiętnasta – 19:00 – “7 P.M.”

dwudziesta – 20:00 – “8 P.M.”

dwudziesta pierwsza – 21:00 – “9 P.M.”

dwudziesta druga – 22:00 – “10 P.M.”

dwudziesta trzecia – 23:00 – “11 P.M.”

dwudziesta czwarta – 24:00 – “12 A.M.” 

The last expression is only acceptable in speech. In writing, you’d use the word at the beginning of the list: północ for “midnight.” 

3- Useful Expressions

Here’s a handful of useful expressions and examples of how to use them, so that you can do a bit more than just saying the time in Polish.

  • Jest już piąta po południu.

“It’s already 5 o’clock!”

  • Nie ma jeszcze czwartej. 

“It’s not 4 o’clock (yet).” 

  • Już prawie dwudziesta pierwsza

“It’s almost 9 P.M.” 

3. Minutes in Polish

A Timer

“A minute” in Polish is minuta. Using the hours and minutes together will allow you to give someone the exact time in Polish.

Let’s look at how to write time in Polish a few different ways:

  • Jest… 

“It’s…”

…11.38

…11:38

…1138 

…1138

If you don’t know the numbers in Polish well yet, study the numbers from 1-10 and 11-10:

  • Jest jedenasta trzydzieści osiem. 

“It’s eleven thirty-eight.”  

That reminds me of one special way of telling time in Poland. Since 1936, a “speaking clock” (zegarynka) has been telling time in Polish to everyone who calls a special number (19226).  

1- Using “Past” and “To” with Minutes

It’s useful to know how to use “past” (po) and “to” (za) when telling the time in Polish. The following examples show you how to use these words while answering the question: “What’s the current time in Poland?”:

  • Jest dwanaście po trzeciej.

“It’s 12 past 3.”

  • Jest dwadzieścia dwie po drugiej.

“It’s 22 past 2.”

Are you wondering why you see the word trzeciej instead of trzecia, and drugiej instead of druga? This is because nouns in Polish have cases. You can find out more about them by visiting the lesson Painless Polish Grammar.

After “half past,” we start to use “to” (za): 

  • Jest za dwadzieścia dwunasta

“It’s 20 to 12.” 

If we were to translate it literally, it’d be “It’s in 20 (minutes) 12.” It makes no sense in English, but shows you that the structure of how to say time in Polish with za and minutes is:

Za (“to”) + number of minutes “missing” + the upcoming hour 

Here’s another example: 

  • Jest za pięć ósma

“It’s 5 to 8.” (Or in literal translation “It’s in 5 [minutes] 8.”)

Did you notice that there’s no need to say what time of day it is? It’s because with conversations about the exact time, the context is almost certainly understandable for both speakers. 

2- Useful Expressions with “Minute”

“A minute” in Polish, just like in English, is used in a number of idiomatic expressions. You’ll find them below:

  • Potrzebna mi jeszcze minutka

“I need one more minute.”  

  • Czy masz minutę?

“Do you have a minute?”

Another way of saying the same thing is Czy masz chwilę? (“Do you have a spare moment?”)  

  • Zabierze Ci to dwie minuty. 

“It’ll take you two minutes.”

4. Polish Clock Time: “Half” and “Quarter”

A Close-up of Hands with One Touching a Watch

To become a pro in telling time in Polish, you need to acquire skills to talk about “halves” and “quarters.” 

1- Quarter Past and To

The good news is that you already know how to say: 

  • Jest dziewiąta piętnaście.

“It’s 9:15.”

  • Jest piętnaście po trzeciej.

“It’s 15 past 3.”

  • Jest za piętnaście czwarta.

“It’s 15 to 4.”

You can express the same idea by mentioning a “quarter” (kwadrans):

  • Jest kwadrans po drugiej. 

“It’s a quarter past two.” 

  • Jest za kwadrans dwunasta. 

“It’s a quarter to 12.” 

That wasn’t too difficult, was it? I have no idea why the BBC in the article 10 Facts about the Polish Language claims it’s one of the most difficult languages in the world to learn… 

2- Half Past and To

You also already know how to say “half past.” We covered this topic earlier on, but here’s a reminder on how to answer the question “What is the time in Poland?”: 

  • Jest trzynasta trzydzieści. 

“It’s 13:30.”

It’s also possible to say that thirty minutes are “missing” before a certain hour. In English there’s no such thing, but try to think about it as “half to.” To say “It’s 13:30” in this manner, you’d say: 

  • Jest w pół do drugiej. 

Literally: “It’s half to two.”

After jest, you need to add w pół do (“half to”) and the hour that’s about to come. Have a look at another example:

  • Jest w pół do czwartej. 

“It’s half past three.” (Literally: “It’s half to four.”)

I know it’s a new idea, but with some practice you’ll get the hang of it!

5. General Time References

Time

You already know that to say A.M. in Polish, we add rano to the hour. You also know that to say P.M. in Polish, we use po południu until five o’clock, and wieczorem from six o’clock onwards. There are also other time references that are useful when you’re trying to learn time in Polish:

wcześnie rano“early in the morning
wschód Słońca“sunrise”
wczesne popołudnie“early in the afternoon
zachód Słońca“sunset”

Here you can see the above-mentioned expressions used in sentences:

  • Wstaję wcześnie rano. 

“I wake up early in the morning.”

  • Oglądam wschód Słońca. 

“I watch the sunrise.” Noqw  Poland. For instance, in the morning, you should greet people by saying Dzień Dobry (“Good morning”) and in the evening you say Dobry wieczór (“Good evening”).

Would you like to learn more about this topic? Check out the lessons Saying Hello No Matter the Time of Day in Polish and Polish Farewells on PolishPod101. 

1- Weeks, Months, and Years

You know how to talk about specific parts of the day and how to answer the question “What time is it in Poland?”, but you should also learn other expressions referring to longer periods of time: 

tydzień — “week”

  • Tydzień to 7 dni. 

A week is 7 days.”

miesiąc — “month”  

  • Miesiąc to 30 lub 31 dni.

A month is 30 or 31 days.”

rok — “year”

  • Rok to 12 miesięcy.

A year is 12 months.”

Knowing how to tell time in Polish and how to ask for it are important skills, but it’s equally important for you to be able to talk about dates. If you don’t know how to do it yet, read our article about reading dates in Polish.

6. Adverbs of Time

Improve Listening

Adverbs of time are used to indicate when something happened or how long it lasted. They include the following: 

  • Mam czas teraz.

“I have time now.”

  • Obecnie jestem w Warszawie.

Currently I’m in Warsaw.”

  • Urodzili się w tym samym czasie.

“They were born at the same time.”

  • Piję kawę po śniadaniu.

“I drink coffee after breakfast.”

  • Jem śniadanie przed pracą.

“I eat breakfast before work.”

  • Niedługo skończę.

“I’ll finish soon.”

  • Wyjeżdżam na długi czas.

“I’m going away for a long time.”

  • Zrób to tak szybko jak to możliwe.

“Do it as soon as possible.”

7. Idiomatic Expressions, Proverbs, and Sayings

Basic Questions

You’ve mastered the skills you need to chat about the Polish clock time. Well done! Now, it’s time to learn a number of idiomatic expressions, proverbs, and sayings to enrich your Polish vocabulary.  

1- Idiomatic Expressions Related to Time

  • Marnujesz czas.

“You’re wasting your time.”

  • To strata czasu.

“It’s a waste of time.”

  • Nie ma czasu do stracenia.

“There’s no time to waste.”

There are also two Polish equivalents for “It’s high time…” (Najwyższy czas… and Najwyższa pora…):

  • Najwyższy czas/Najwyższa pora na naukę polskich przysłów.

“It’s high time to learn Polish proverbs.”

2- Proverbs and Sayings Related to Time

A Person with Multiple Arms, Holding Different Objects including an Alarm Clock

What English proverbs and sayings related to time are also used in Polish? Let’s have a look:

  • Czas to pieniądz.

“Time is money.”

  • Jak ten czas leci! / Ale ten czas leci! 

“Time flies.”

  • Czas leczy wszystkie rany. 

“Time heals all wounds.”

  • Komu w drogę, temu czas.

Roughly translated as “It’s time to go.” 

This proverb means that the faster you start doing something, the faster you’ll finish. 

  • Nie czas żałować róż, gdy płoną lasy. 

This proverb translates as “Don’t cry over roses, when the forest is on fire.” 

This is a reminder of priorities and the need to focus on the biggest problem first. 

8. Final Thoughts

We hope that you’ve enjoyed learning about telling the time in Polish. You’ll have no problems answering the question “What is the time in Poland?”, giving people the exact time in Polish, or asking them about the time if you forget your watch. You’ve also memorized a number of useful expressions related to time. 

If you want to become more confident in your Polish skills, get a free account with PolishPod101. It’s an amazing opportunity to practice the language by listening to real life dialogue with native speakers on a platform available 24/7.  

Don’t forget to let us know what time it is where you are right now, in Polish. In case you have any questions, don’t be shy. We’re here for you!

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Essential Vocabulary for Directions in Polish

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Do you know your left from your right in Polish? Asking for directions can mean the difference between a heavenly day on the beach and a horrible day on your feet, hot and bothered and wondering how to even get back to the hotel. Believe me – I know! On my earlier travels, I didn’t even know simple terms like ‘go straight ahead’ or ‘go west,’ and I was always too shy to ask locals for directions. It wasn’t my ego, but rather the language barrier that held me back. I’ve ended up in some pretty dodgy situations for my lack of directional word skills.

This never needs to happen! When traveling in Poland, you should step out in confidence, ready to work your Polish magic and have a full day of exploring. It’s about knowing a few basic phrases and then tailoring them with the right directional words for each situation. Do you need to be pointed south in Polish? Just ask! Believe me, people are more willing to help than you might think. It’s when you ask in English that locals might feel too uncertain to answer you. After all, they don’t want to get you lost. For this reason, it also makes sense that you learn how to understand people’s responses. 

Asking directions in Poland is inevitable. So, learn to love it! Our job here at PolishPod101 is to give you the confidence you need to fully immerse and be the intrepid adventurer you are.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Around Town in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Talking about position and direction in Polish
  2. Getting directions in Polish
  3. Conclusion

1. Talking about position and direction in Polish

Have you ever tried saying the compass directions of north, south, east and west in Polish? These words are good to know, being the most natural and ancient method of finding direction. In the days before GPS – before the invention of the compass, even – knowing the cardinal directions was critical to finding the way. Certainly, if you were lost somewhere in the mountain regions now and using a map to navigate, you’d find them useful. Even more so if you and a Polish friend were adrift at sea, following the stars!

In most situations, though, we rely on body relative directions – your basic up, down, left and right, forward and backwards. Most cultures use relative directions for reference and Polish is no exception. Interestingly, in a few old languages there are no words for left and right and people still rely on cardinal directions every day. Can you imagine having such a compass brain?

A black compass on a colored map

Well, scientists say that all mammals have an innate sense of direction, so getting good at finding your way is just a matter of practice. It’s pretty cool to think that we were born already pre-wired to grasp directions; the descriptive words we invented are mere labels to communicate these directions to others! Thus, the need to learn some Polish positional vocabulary. So, without further ado… let’s dive in.

1- Top – szczyt

If planting a flag at the top of the highest mountain in Poland is a goal you’d rather leave for  adrenaline junkies, how about making it to the top of the highest building? Your view of the city will be one you’ll never forget, and you can take a selfie  for Twitter with your head in the clouds. 

man on the top rung of a ladder in the sky, about to topple off

2- Bottom – dno

The ‘bottom’ can refer to the lower end of a road, the foot of a mountain, or the ground floor of a building. It’s the place you head for after you’ve been to the top!

What are your favorite ‘bottoms’? I love the first rung of a ladder, the base of a huge tree or the bottom of a jungle-covered hill. What can I say? I’m a climber. Divers like the bottom of the ocean and foxes like the bottom of a hole. Since you’re learning Polish, hopefully you’ll travel from the top to the bottom of Poland.

3- Up – góra

This is a very common and useful word to know when seeking directions. You can go up the street, up an elevator, up a cableway, up a mountain… even up into the sky in a hot air balloon. It all depends on how far up you like to be!

Hot air balloons in a blue cloudy sky

4- Down – dół

What goes up, must surely come down. This is true of airplanes, flaming arrows and grasshoppers – either aeronautics or gravity will take care of that. In the case of traveling humans who don’t wish to go down at terminal velocity, it’s useful to know phrases such as, “Excuse me, where is the path leading back down this mountain?”

5- Middle – środek

In Lord of the Rings, Tolkien’s characters live in Middle-earth, which is just an ancient word for the inhabited world of men; it referred to the physical world, as opposed to the unseen worlds above and below it. The ancients also thought of the human world as vaguely in the middle of the encircling seas.

When we talk about the ‘middle’, we’re referring to a point that’s roughly between two horizontal lines – like the middle of the road or the middle of a river. While you’re unlikely to ask for directions to the ‘middle’ of anything, you might hear it as a response. For example, “You’re looking for the castle ruins? But they’re in the middle of the forest!”

Castle ruins in a forest

6- Center – środek

In Polish, the words for “middle” and “center” are the same. Technically, “center” means the exact central point of a circular area, equally distant from every point on the circumference.  When asking for directions to the center of town, though, we don’t mean to find a mathematically-accurate pinpoint!

Bull’s eye on a dartboard

7- Front – przód

The front is the place or position that is seen first; it’s the most forward part of something.  In the case of a hotel, the front is going to be easy to recognize, so if you call a taxi and are told to wait “in front of the hotel”, you won’t have a problem. It’s pretty cool how just knowing the main Polish directional words can help you locate something if there’s a good landmark nearby.

8- Back – tył

I once rented a house in a charming little street that was tucked away at the back of a popular mall. It was so easy to find, but my boss took three hours to locate it from 300 meters away. Why? Well, because she spoke no English and I had no clue what the word for ‘back’ was. All she heard, no matter which way I said it, was “mall, mall, mall”.  As a result, she hunted in front of and next to the mall until she was frazzled. 

Knowing how to describe the location of your own residence is probably the first Polish ‘directions’ you should practice. This skill will certainly come in handy if you’re lost and looking for your way home. 

9- Side – strona

If the place you’re looking for is at the ‘side’ of something, it will be located to the left or the right of that landmark. That could mean you’re looking for an alleyway beside a building, or a second entrance (as opposed to the main entrance). 

As an example, you might be told that your tour bus will be waiting at the right side of the building, not in front. Of course, then you’ll also need to understand “It’s on the right” in Polish.

Jeepney taxi parked at the side of a building

10- East – wschód

If you’re facing north, then east is the direction of your right hand. It’s the direction toward which the Earth rotates about its axis, and therefore the general direction from which the sun appears to rise. If you want to go east using a compass for navigation, you should set a bearing of 90°. 

We think of Asia as the ‘East’. Geographically, this part of the world lies in the eastern hemisphere, but there’s so much more that we’ve come to associate with this word. The East signifies ancient knowledge and is symbolic of enlightenment in many cultures.

Monks reading on a boulder in front of a Buddha statue

11- West – zachód

West is the opposite to east and it’s the direction in which the sun sets. To go west using a compass, you’ll set a bearing of 270 degrees. 

If you were on the planet Venus, which rotates in the opposite direction from the Earth (retrograde rotation), the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east… not that you’d be able to see the sun through Venus’s opaque clouds. 

Culturally, the West refers mainly to the Americas and Europe, but also to Australia and New Zealand, which are geographically in the East. The Western way of thinking is very different to that of the East. One of the most striking differences is individualism versus collectivism. In the West, we grew up with philosophies of freedom and independence, whereas in the East concepts of unity are more important. 

Food for thought: as a traveler who’s invested in learning the languages and cultures of places you visit, you have an opportunity to become a wonderfully balanced thinker – something the world needs more of.

12- North – północ

North is the top point of a map and when navigating, you’d set a compass bearing of 360 degrees if you want to go that way. Globes of the earth have the north pole at the top, and we use north as the direction by which we define all other directions.

If you look into the night sky, the North Star (Polaris) marks the way due north. It’s an amazing star, in that it holds nearly still in our sky while the entire northern sky moves around it. That’s because it’s located nearly at the north celestial pole – the point around which the entire northern sky turns. Definitely a boon for lost travelers!

The North Star with the Big Dipper in a night sky

13- South – południe

South is the opposite of north, and it’s perpendicular to the east and west. You can find it with a compass if you set your bearings to 180 degrees. 

The south celestial pole is the point around which the entire southern sky appears to turn. In the night sky of the southern hemisphere, the Southern Cross is a very easy to find constellation with four points in the shape of a diamond. If you come from the southern hemisphere, chances are your dad or mum pointed it out to you when you were a kid. You can use the Southern Cross to find south if traveling by night, so it’s well worth figuring it out!

14- Outside – na zewnątrz

This word refers to any place that is not under a roof. Perhaps you’ve heard talk about some amazing local bands that will be playing in a nearby town on the weekend. If it’s all happening outside, you’ll be looking for a venue in a park, a stadium or some other big open space. Come rain or shine, outside definitely works for me!

A young woman on someone’s shoulders at an outdoor concert

15- Inside – w środku

I can tolerate being inside if all the windows are open, or if I’m watching the latest Homeland episode. How about you? I suppose going shopping for Polish-style accessories would be pretty fun, too, and that will (mostly) be an inside affair. 

16- Opposite – przeciwny

This is a great word to use as a reference point for locating a place. It’s right opposite that other place! In other words, if you stand with your back to the given landmark, your destination will be right in front of you. 

17- Adjacent – obok

So, the adorable old man from next door, who looks about ninety-nine, explains in Polish that the food market where he works is adjacent to the community hall on the main road. ‘Adjacent’ just means next to or adjoining something else, so… head for the hall! 

While you’re marveling at the wondrous and colorful displays of Polish food, think about how all of these delicious stalls lie adjacent to one another. Having a happy visual association with a new word is a proven way to remember it!

Outdoor food market fruit display

18- Toward – w kierunku

To go toward something is to go in its direction and get closer to it. This word can often appear in a sentence with ‘straight ahead’, as in:

“Go straight ahead, toward the park.”

If you’ve come to Poland to teach English, you might have to ask someone how to find your new school. Depending on what town you’re in, you could simply head toward the residential area at lunch time. You’ll see (and probably hear) the primary school soon enough – it will be the big fenced building with all the kids running around the yard!

19- Facing – naprzeciw

If you look at yourself in a mirror, you’ll be facing your reflection. In other words: you and your reflection look directly at each other.  Many plush hotels are ocean-facing or river-facing, meaning the main entrance is pointed directly at the water, and the beach out front faces the hotel. 

20- Beside – obok

I know of a special little place where there’s a gym right beside a river. You can watch the sun go down over the water while working out – it’s amazing. What’s more, you can park your scooter beside the building and it will still be there when you come out.

21- Corner – róg

I love a corner when it comes to directions. A street corner is where two roads meet at an angle – often 90 degrees – making it easier to find than a location on a straight plane. 

“Which building is the piano teacher in, sir?”

“Oh, that’s easy – it’s the one on the corner.”

The key to a corner is that it leads in two directions. It could form a crossroads, a huge intersection, or it could be the start of a tiny one-way cobblestone street with hidden treasures waiting in the shadow of the buildings.

A white and yellow building on the corner of two streets

22- Distant – odległy

When a location is distant, it’s in an outlying area. This Polish word refers to the remoteness of the site, not to how long it takes to get there. For that reason, it’s a very good idea to write the directions down, rather than try to memorize them in Polish. Even better, get a Polish person to write them down for you. This may seem obvious, but always include the location of your starting point! Any directions you’re given will be relative to the exact place you’re starting from.

Man lost on a dusty road, looking at a road map and scratching his head

23- Far – daleko

This word has a similar meaning to the previous one, but it speaks more about the fact that it will take some time to get there. If you’re told that your destination is “far”,  you’ll no doubt want to go by public transport if you don’t have your own vehicle. Get your hands on a road map and have the directions explained to you using this map. Don’t hesitate to bring out the highlighters. 

24- Close – blisko

This word is always a good one to hear when you have your heart set on a very relaxing day in the sun. It means there’s only a short distance to travel, so you can get there in a heartbeat and let the tanning commence. Remember to grab your Nook Book – learning is enhanced when you’re feeling happy and unencumbered. Being close to ‘home’ also means you can safely steal maximum lazy hours and leave the short return trip for sunset! 

A smiling woman lying in a hammock on the beach

25- Surrounding – otaczać

If something is surrounding you, it is on every side and you are enclosed by it – kind of like being in a boat. Of course, we’re not talking about deep water here, unless you’re planning on going fishing. Directions that include this word are more likely to refer to the surrounding countryside, or any other features that are all around the place you’re looking for.

A polar bear stuck on a block of ice, completely surrounded by water.

26- All sides – wszystkie strony

Another useful descriptive Polish term to know is ‘all sides’. It simply means that from a particular point, you will be able to see the same features to the front, back and sides of you. It doesn’t necessarily imply you’ll be completely surrounded, just more-or-less so. Say, for example, you’re visiting the winelands for the day. When you get there, you’ll see vineyards on all sides of you. How stunning! Don’t neglect to sample the local wines – obviously. 

27- Next to – obok

The person giving you directions is probably standing next to you. The place being described as ‘next to’ something is in a position immediately to one side of it. It could refer to adjoining buildings, neighbouring stores, or the one-legged beggar who sits next to the beautiful flower vendor on weekdays. ‘Next to’ is a great positional term, as everything is next to something! 

“Excuse me, Ma’am.  Where is the train station?”

“It’s that way – next to the tourist market.”

28- Above – nad

This is the direction you’ll be looking at if you turn your head upwards. Relative to where your body is, it’s a point higher than your head. If you’re looking for the location of a place that’s ‘above’ something, it’s likely to be on at least the first floor of a building; in other words, above another floor.

‘Above’ could also refer to something that will be visible overhead when you get to the right place. For example, the road you’re looking for might have holiday decorations strung up from pole to pole above it. In the cities, this is very likely if there’s any kind of festival going on.

View from below of a carnival swing, with riders directly above the viewer

29- Under – pod

Under is the opposite of above, and refers to a place that lies beneath something else. In the case of directions in Polish, it could refer to going under a bridge – always a great landmark – or perhaps through a subway. In some parts of the world, you can even travel through a tunnel that’s under the sea!

Of course, you might just be missing your home brew and looking for an awesome coffee shop that happens to be under the very cool local gym you were also looking for. Nice find!

2. Getting directions in Polish

The quickest and easiest way to find out how to get where you’re going is simply to ask someone. Most people on the streets of Poland won’t mind being asked at all and will actually appreciate your attempt to ask directions in Polish. After all, most tourists are more inclined to ask in their own language and hope for the best. How pedestrian is that, though?

Asking directions

I know, I know – you normally prefer to find your own way without asking. Well, think of it like this: you obviously need to practice asking questions in Polish as much as you need to practice small talk, counting, or ordering a beer. Since you can’t very well ask a complete stranger if they would please help you count to five hundred, you’ll have to stick with asking directions!

We spoke earlier about body relative directions and these tend to be the ones we use most. For example:

“Turn left.”

“Go straight.”

“Turn right.” 

Remember, too, that your approach is important. Many people are wary of strangers and you don’t want to scare them off. It’s best to be friendly, direct and get to the point quickly.  A simple ‘Hi, can you help me?” or “Excuse me, I’m a bit lost,” will suffice. If you have a map in your hand, even better, as your intentions will be clear. 

The bottom line is that if you want to find your way around Poland with ease, it’s a good idea to master these basic phrases. With a little practice, you can also learn how to say directions in Polish. Before you know it, you’ll be the one explaining the way!

3. Conclusion

Now that you have over thirty new directional phrases you can learn in Polish, there’s no need to fear losing your way when you hit the streets of Poland. All you need is a polite approach and your own amazing smile, and the locals will be excited to help you. It’s a chance for them to get better at explaining things to a foreigner, too. Most will enjoy that!

I advise keeping a few things handy in your day pack: a street map, a highlighter, a small notebook and pen, and your Polish phrasebook. It would be useful to also have the Polish WordPower app installed on your phone – available for both iPhone and Android

Here’s a quick challenge to get you using the new terms right away. Can you translate these directions into Polish?

“It’s close. Go straight ahead to the top of the hill and turn left at the corner. The building is on the right, opposite a small bus stop.”

You’re doing amazingly well to have come this far! Well done on tackling the essential topic of ‘directions’ – it’s a brave challenge that will be immensely rewarding. Trust me, when you’re standing at a beautiful location that you found just by knowing what to ask in Polish, you’re going to feel pretty darn good.

If you’re as excited as I am about taking Polish to an even deeper level, we have so much more to offer you. Did you know that we’ve already had over 1 billion lesson downloads? I know – we’re blown away by that, too. It’s amazing to be bringing the world’s languages to people who are so hungry for learning. Let me share some of our best options for you:

  • If you haven’t done so already, grab your free lifetime account as a start. You’ll get audio and video lessons, plus vocabulary building tools. 
  • My favorite freebie is the word of the day, which will arrive in your inbox every morning. Those are the words I remember best!
  • Start listening to Polish music. I’m serious – it really works to make the resistant parts of the brain relax and accept the new language. Read about it here for some tips.
  • If you enjoy reading, we have some great iBooks for your daily commute.
  • If you have a Kindle and prefer to do your reading on a picnic blanket,  there are over 6 hours of unique lessons in Polish for you right there.

That’s it for today! Join PolishPod101 to discover many more ways that we can offer you a truly fun and enriching language learning experience. Happy travels!

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Useful Polish Phrases: Compliments for Every Occasion

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Among useful Polish phrases, compliments are particularly handy in social situations. Giving a compliment can make you feel good, and also bring joy to the lives of others. What are the best Polish compliments, though? Keep reading and you’ll learn how to compliment people in Polish in any situation.

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Table of Contents

  1. Complimenting Someone’s Appearance
  2. Praising Someone in Polish for Their Work
  3. Complimenting Someone on Their Skills
  4. Making Compliments Sound More Sincere
  5. What to Expect After You Give a Compliment
  6. Final Thoughts

1. Complimenting Someone’s Appearance

A Pageant Queen

We all compliment someone’s appearance from time to time. And yet, sometimes people may feel offended by certain remarks.

The easiest way to avoid making someone feel uncomfortable is to consider the context before complimenting them. Shouting “You are beautiful!” in Polish (Jesteś piękna!) to a woman or “You’re handsome!” (Jesteś przystojny!) to a man on the street is an example of bad manners. In fact, catcalling is a form of street harassment.

Similarly, commenting on someone’s appearance is often inappropriate in professional contexts, such as a job interview or a shareholder meeting.

You should save such compliments for positive acquaintances, friends, and family.

1- Polish Compliments to a Girl or Woman

There’s a number of lovely Polish compliments to a girl or woman you can use. Here are some compliments in Polish for women of any age:

A- Hair

  • Bardzo ładnie ci w tych włosach! (“This hairstyle looks great on you!”)
  • Masz bardzo zadbane włosy. (“Your hair is in great shape!”)
  • Bardzo fajna fryzura! (“What a cool haircut!”)
  • Super cięcie! (“Great haircut!”)

B- Outfit

  • Ale śliczna sukienka! (“What a lovely dress!”)
  • Fajna stylówka! (“Cool style!”)
  • Do twarzy ci w tym kolorze! (“This color suits you!”)
  • Ekstra/super bluzka! (“I love your shirt!”)
  • Podoba mi się twoja torebka. (“I like your handbag.”)
  • Gdzie kupiłaś ten sweter? Jest przepiękny! (“Where did you buy this sweater? It’s gorgeous!”)

Learn more words for clothes in Polish to expand your complimenting abilities!

C- Smile

  • Masz bardzo ładny uśmiech. (“You have a very pretty smile.”)
  • Pięknie się uśmiechasz. (“You smile beautifully.”)

D- General compliments on appearance

  • Jesteś najpiękniejszą kobietą, jaką kiedykolwiek widziałem. (“You’re the most beautiful woman I’ve ever seen.”)

This phrase can be said to a woman by a man in a romantic context. If a woman wanted to say it, the form of the verb widzieć (“to see”) would change to widziałam.

  • Świetnie/Super/Ekstra wyglądasz! (“You look great!”)

We could compliment a man in the same way.

  • Macierzyństwo ci służy! (“Motherhood suits you!”)

The literal meaning is closer to: “Motherhood serves you well!”) It’s a Polish compliment specifically for women who’ve become mothers.

  • Z roku na rok wyglądasz coraz lepiej! (“You look better every year!”)

This phrase is stereotypically considered one of the top Polish compliments for a girl or woman.

  • Zżera mnie zazdrość jak na ciebie patrzę. (“I’m green with envy when I look at you.”)

This is a compliment in Polish told by a woman to a woman.

2- Polish Compliments for Men on Appearance

A Man

Compliments about a man’s smile and hair would be the same as for women, even though they’re certainly used less often. You can also compliment a man on the following:

A- Outfit

  • Podoba mi się Twój garnitur. (“I like your suit.”)
  • Fajne jeansy! (“Cool jeans.”)
  • Szykowna marynarka! (“Stylish jacket!”)
  • Nieźle sie odstawiłeś! (“You look very fancy.”)

The last expression is humorous and can be used in a mean way, so make sure you’re on good terms with someone and that they get your sense of humor before you use it.

B- General compliments on looks

  • Jesteś najwspanialszym mężczyzną, jakiego znam. (“You’re the best man I know.”)

This phrase is romantic in nature. Are you keen to learn more about romance and love in Polish?

  • Kim jest ten przystojniak? (“Who’s that handsome man?”)

Another humorous way to comment on the fact that someone looks good.

  • Bardzo wyprzystojniałeś. (“You’ve gotten much more handsome.”)

This one is a compliment often used for someone who we’ve known as a child or teenager.

  • Nieźle się trzymasz. (“You still look good.”)

This expression is used for someone who’s aging well. Are you still unsure of how to compliment a guy? Wikihow to the rescue!

2. Praising Someone in Polish for Their Work

A Group of People Representing Different Professions

Everyone likes to feel appreciated, which is why it’s so important to know the best Polish compliments to give on a job well done. If you don’t feel confident about your work-related Polish vocabulary, go to our jobs/work vocabulary builder.

1- General Work-Related Compliments

There’s a number of Polish compliments applicable in many work-related situations. They include:

  • Dobra robota! (“Good job!”)
  • Widać, że się starał! (“I can tell you’ve put a lot of work into it!”) [to a man]
  • Widać, że się starał! (“I can tell you’ve put a lot of work into it!”) [to a woman]
  • Zasłużył na pochwałę! (“You’ve earned your praise!”) [to a man]
  • Zasłużył na pochwałę! (“You’ve earned your praise!”) [to a woman]

By the same token, you could humorously suggest that someone’s work is so good that he or she deserves a raise:

  • Zasłużył na podwyżkę! (“You should get a raise!”) [to a man]
  • Zasłużył na podwyżkę! (“You should get a raise!”) [to a woman]
  • Twoje wyniki przerosły moje oczekiwania. (“Your results have surpassed my expectations.”)

2- Specific Compliments on Someone’s Work

There are also many compliments you can use in specific situations, depending on the gender of the noun:

A- Feminine

  • Bardzo podobała mi się twoja prezentacja. (“I’ve really enjoyed your presentation.”)
  • Ciekawa przemowa. (“An interesting talk.”)
  • Znakomita sugestia. (“An excellent suggestion.”)

B- Masculine

  • Bardzo podoba mi się twój pomysł. (“I really like your idea.”)
  • Ciekawy plan. (“An interesting plan.”)
  • Znakomity raport. (“An excellent report.”)

C- Neutral

  • Bardzo podobało mi się twoje wystąpienie. (“I’ve really enjoyed your speech.”)
  • Ciekawe podejście. (“An interesting approach.”)
  • Znakomite podsumowanie. (“An excellent summary.”)

3. Complimenting Someone on Their Skills

Compliments

Sometimes, in your private life, you may want to compliment a friend or an acquaintance on their skills. After all, complimenting someone in Poland may earn you brownie points.

One thing to remember is that Polish compliments for a girl or woman are often different than those for a man. This is due to the changes in the form of adjectives and gender-dependent nouns.

Learn high-frequency adjectives in Polish, and then get ready to use them in Polish compliments!

1- Saying Nice Things About Someone’s Cooking

A Person Seasoning a Dish

If someone makes an effort to cook for you, you should at least know how to say how much you’ve enjoyed the meal. By the way, have you ever tried Polish cuisine?

  • Jesteś świetną kuchar. (“You’re a great cook.”) [to a woman]
  • Jesteś świetnym kucharzem. (“You’re a great cook.”) [to a man]
  • Naprawdę pycha, dziękuję! (“It’s really delicious, thank you.”)
  • Świetnie gotujesz. (“You’re a great cook.”) [Literally: “You cook great.]
  • Przepyszna sałatka [or other feminine noun]. (“Great salad!”)
  • Przepyszny makaron [or other masculine noun]. (“Great pasta!”)
  • Niebo w gębie. Dasz mi przepis? (“Super-tasty! Can you give me the recipe?”) [Niebo w gębie is an idiomatic slang expression that literally means “Heaven in the mouth.”]

2- Praising Someone’s Artistic Skills

When a friend unleashes their inner artist, there’s nothing nicer for them than hearing some genuine appreciation for their skills. Here’s a number of handy phrases to use for that purpose:

A- Photography

  • Masz naprawdę dobre oko. (“You have a really good eye for photography.”)
  • Piękne ujęcie! (“What a beautiful shot!”)
  • Gdzie się nauczył robić takie świetne zdjęcia? (“Where did you learn to take such great pictures?”) [to a man]
  • Gdzie się nauczył robić takie świetne zdjęcia? (“Where did you learn to take such great pictures?”) [to a woman]
  • Super zdjęcie! (“Great picture!”)

Curious for more photography words? Listen to this conversation about a Polish photograph!

B- Painting

  • Świetnie malujesz! (“You paint well!”)
  • To ty to namalow? (“You’re the one who painted it?”) [to a woman]
  • To ty to namalow? (“You’re the one who painted it?”) [to a man]

These expressions, through doubt, introduce a suggestion that something is almost too good to be done by a non-professional. Such compliments are not uncommon in Polish culture.

  • Ten pies [or other masculine noun] wygląda jak żywy. (“This dog looks as if he was real.”)
  • Ta kobieta [or other feminine noun] wygląda jak żywa. (“This woman looks as if she was real.”)
  • To dziecko [or other neuter noun] wygląda jak żywe. (“This child looks as if it was real.”)

Żywy literally means “alive,” but in this context, it translates as “real.”

  • Przepiękny obraz! (“What a stunning painting!”)

C- Playing an instrument

A Young Man Playing the Piano

  • Pięknie grasz! (“You play beautifully!”)
  • Jesteś bardzo uzdolnioną pianist/saksofonist/gitarzyst. (“You’re a very talented pianist/saxophone player/guitar player.”) [to a woman]
  • Jesteś bardzo uzdolnionym pianistą/saksofonistą/gitarzystą. (“You’re a very talented pianist/saxophone player/guitar player.”) [to a man]
  • Grasz jak anioł! (“You play like an angel!”)

To learn how to talk about hobbies in Polish, don’t forget to go to our lesson “What do you do in your free time in Poland?”

3- Compliments About Language Skills

As a language-learner, you should know that learning a foreign language isn’t easy and that it’s extremely nice to be complimented on your skills. Here’s how you can say a few nice words about someone’s language fluency in Polish:

  • Świetnie mówisz po angielsku. (“You speak English very well.”)
  • Mówisz po włosku jak native speaker. (“You speak Italian like a native speaker.”)
  • Mówisz po niemiecku, jakbyś urodził się w Niemczech. (“You speak German as if you were born in Germany.”) [to a man]
  • Mówisz po niemiecku, jakbyś urodziła się w Niemczech. (“You speak German as if you were born in Germany.”) [to a woman]
  • Masz bardzo bogate słownictwo. (“You have a very rich vocabulary.”)
  • Jestem pod wrażeniem twoich zdolności językowych. (“I’m impressed by your language skills.”)

A Number of Dictionaries

Do you know how to brag about your own language skills in Polish? If not, check out our lesson “Who wants to be a polyglot?”

4. Making Compliments Sound More Sincere

Positive Feelings

Knowing the best Polish compliments is one thing, and knowing when to give them so that they sound natural is another. Below, you can find tips on making your compliments sound more sincere.

1. Speak only the truth.

The best way to make your compliments more sincere is being honest. Don’t tell someone you like their new hairstyle just because you think that’s what’s expected.

2. If you have nothing nice to say, say nothing.

Only give the compliments you mean, and if you have nothing nice to say, remain quiet. This means you should refrain from negativity. Your sincere compliment later on will mean nothing if you manage to offend someone beforehand.

3. Comment on specific things.

Vague compliments such as Wyglądasz świetnie! (“You look great!”) can be nice, but people prefer specific compliments, as they come off as more genuine. That’s why Uwielbiam takie kolorowe kolczyki! (“I love such colorful earrings!”) sounds more like it’s coming from the heart than simply saying Fajne kolczyki! (“Cool earrings!”)

4. Smile and look people in the eye.

A sincere smile and looking people in the eye are sure ways to make a compliment feel genuine.

5. Respect people’s personal space.

Polish people are much less touchy than, for instance, Americans or people in some other nations. You don’t want to come off as pushy or flirty, if that’s not your intention. Observe your environment and ask around to learn how close you should get to a person and in what situations touch is appropriate.

If you feel like you need more help, read the guide on Wikihow “How to Give a Compliment.” Psychology Today is also there for you to tell you about 9 types of compliments that do and don’t work.

5. What to Expect After You Give a Compliment

Polish people enjoy compliments just like people in any other nation. However, compliments in Polish culture are often diminished by people who receive them. For instance, if you praise someone’s piano-playing skills with:

  • Pięknie grasz na pianinie. (“You play the piano beautifully.”)

You can expect a reply of Dziękuję (“Thank you”), followed by something along the lines of: To tylko zasługa mojego nauczyciela. (“It’s only because of my teacher.”)

A Thank You Note

Other ways to say “thanks” for the compliment in Polish include:

  • Dzięki, ale to nic wielkiego! (“Thanks, but it’s nothing special!”)
  • Naprawdę tak sądzisz? Dzięki! (“Do you really think so? Thanks!”)
  • Dzięki wielkie! (“Thanks a lot!”)

Trip Savvy has some great information on the intricacies of the Polish culture, if you would like to learn even more!

6. Final Thoughts

Today, you’ve learned many useful Polish phrases. Compliments, after all, are an indispensable communication tool. Polish compliment translations don’t always have exact matches in English, but there’s a wide variety of compliments in this language.

Whenever you need Polish compliments for a girl, woman, or man, you can consult our article again to find them. You can also read about the top 10 compliments you always want to hear in Polish. Which compliment would you like to hear the most? Let us know in the comments section before you go.

PolishPod101.com can offer you much more than just Polish compliments, though. If you want to learn how to speak Polish from scratch, PolishPod101 is a perfect tool for that. Get your free lifetime account now and access thousands of audio and video lessons, lesson materials, and other learning tools on your mobile device of choice.

Happy learning!

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Celebrating International Children’s Day in Poland

Do you remember being a kid? The world was bigger, our imaginations seemed to cover more ground, and weekends, summer vacation, and holidays were the best thing ever!

In Poland, International Children’s Day doesn’t mean a day away from school, but it is a day of fun and enjoyment for children across the country! In this article, you’ll learn about Polish Children’s Day celebrations, the holiday’s history, and some useful vocabulary.

Let’s get started.

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1. What is International Children’s Day?

This holiday has roots in the United States, having started when a Massachusetts pastor gave a special sermon for and about children in 1857. However, International Children’s Day officially began in 1925 when the World Conference on Child Welfare declared it in Geneva, Switzerland. The holiday quickly spread from then on, and International Children’s Day in Poland was officially recognized in 1950.

Polish Children’s Day is predominantly a day for children to have zabawa (“fun”) and enjoy themselves. There’s also an emphasis on protecting children’s rights—particularly those outlined in the Konwencja o prawach dziecka (“Convention on the Rights of the Child”)—to ensure that they have a fulfilling dzieciństwo (“childhood”).

2. Children’s Day Date

A Mother and Her Young Daughter in the Grass Smiling

Each year, Poles celebrate International Children’s Day on June 1. This is when many other countries (though not all) celebrate this holiday as well.

3. How to Celebrate International Children’s Day

Two Kids Playing on a Playground

Activities for International Children’s Day vary from year to year, and there are no set traditions set in place. This is not a national holiday, meaning that children (unfortunately) still have to go to school on International Children’s Day.

Still, schools and parents do what they can to make this a radosny (“joyful”) holiday for the kids. Schools often organize special activities, usually involving sports competitions or other games such as tug-of-war. Parents may spend extra time with their children, make their child’s favorite dinner, or give their child a new zabawka (“toy”) and słodycze (“sweets”).

On International Children’s Day, Poland is also experiencing its first bout of summer. This makes Children’s Day in Poland a fantastic time to engage in outdoor activities such as picnics or outdoor games. In 2015, even then-Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz got involved, inviting several children for a picnic with her.

Another defining feature of Poland’s take on this holiday is the Parliament of Children and Youth. Each year on Children’s Day, Poland’s chosen high school students—determined by the quality of essays they write on a given topic—meet together and discuss modern topics of interest concerning the country’s youth. The parliament has gathered together each year since 1994, and Poland is the first European country to have organized such a parliament.

4. Brushing Your Teeth…?

If you have kids—or remember being one—we’re sure you know the struggle of getting a child to brush their teeth regularly.

Many Polish parents face this struggle every day, but on Children’s Day, they make a special concession for their children. Yep! Most Polish kids don’t have to brush their teeth before bed on this holiday (even after eating so many sweets…).

5. Must-Know Vocabulary for Children’s Day

A Basket Full of Different Sweets

Let’s review some of the vocabulary words from this article!

  • Dziecko — “Child” [n. neut]
  • Słodycze — “Sweets” [n. neut]
  • Zabawka — “Toy” [n. fem]
  • Zabawa — “Fun” [n. fem]
  • Dzieciństwo — “Childhood” [n. neut]
  • Szczęśliwy — “Happy” [adj.]
  • Radosny — “Joyful” [adj.]
  • Bawić się — “Play” [v.]
  • Lizak — “Lollipop” [n. masc]
  • Konwencja o prawach dziecka — “Convention on the Rights of the Child” [fem]

If you want to hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase listed above, be sure to check out our Polish International Children’s Day vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about International Children’s Day in Poland with us, and that you took away some valuable information about Polish culture!

Do you celebrate Children’s Day in your country? If so, what are the most common traditions and celebrations? Let us know in the comments!

If you want to continue learning about Polish culture and the language, PolishPod101.com has several free resources for you:

This only scratches the surface of everything that PolishPod101.com has to offer the aspiring Polish-learner. To make the most of your study time, create your free lifetime account today; for access to exclusive content and lessons, upgrade to our Premium or Premium PLUS plans.

We want to help you reach your language-learning goals, and we’ll be here with you every step of the way there.

Happy International Children’s Day from the PolishPod101 family!

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How to Express Anger Without Using Polish Swear Words

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Knowing Polish swear words may come in handy in some situations, such as when you’re watching movies in Polish. Unfortunately, if you use them in real-life situations, you may offend someone or get into trouble. That’s why you won’t find a list of Polish swear words here.

The real skill to acquire is learning how to express anger without using the worst Polish curses. How would an angry Polish person do that? We’ve prepared a number of useful expressions for you.

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Table of Contents

  1. Angry Imperatives
  2. Angry Warnings
  3. Angry Blaming
  4. Describing How You Feel
  5. How to Calm Yourself Down When You’re Angry
  6. Final Thoughts

1. Angry Imperatives

Complaints

It’s important to have a good understanding of what’s socially acceptable in Poland. In terms of Polish swear words, people in this cold country—especially the older generation—are quite conservative. This is why, instead of using Polish curse phrases, you can stick to a number of milder angry imperatives. You’ll still get your point across, but no one will think that you’re an impolite or vulgar person.

1- “Shut up” phrases

A Person with a Finger in Front of Her Mouth Asking Someone to be Quiet

Saying “shut up” is not the nicest thing to say in English, but sometimes in anger, you may feel like you have no choice but to use it. Here’s a number of relevant angry Polish phrases:

  • Zamknij się! (“Shut up!” )
  • Zamkniesz się wreszcie? (“Will you finally shut up?” )
  • Zamknij się wreszcie! (“Do shut up!” )
  • Cicho bądź! (“Be quiet!” )
  • Cisza! (“Quiet!” )
  • Nie odzywaj się niepytany. (Literally: “Don’t speak unasked.” ) [to a man]
  • Nie odzywaj się niepytana. (Literally: “Don’t speak unasked.” ) [to a woman]
  • Pytał Cię ktoś? (Literally: “Has anyone asked you?” )
  • Pytał Cię ktoś o zdanie? (“Has anyone asked your opinion?” )

2- “Leave me alone” phrases

There’s a number of useful phrases in Polish that you can use to ask someone to leave you alone. And again, there’s no need to use Polish curse phrases to obtain this effect:

  • Daj mi spokój! (Literally “Give me a rest!” and translates to “Leave me alone!” )
  • Zostaw mnie w spokoju! (“Leave me alone!” )
  • Daj już spokój! (“Give it a rest!” )
  • Odczep się! (Literally “Stop clinging to me!” and translates as “Go away!” )

3- “Stop” phrases

Do you know what nine things you need to stop doing to be successful? With these phrases, we’ll focus on how to let others know that you want them to stop doing something.

  • Przestań! (“Stop!” )
  • Przestaniesz w końcu? (“Will you finally stop?” )
  • Przestań wreszcie! (“Stop!” ) [Literally: “Stop, finally!”]
  • Przestań się tak zachowywać! (“Stop behaving like this!” )
  • Skończ z tym! (“Stop with this!” )
  • Koniec z tym! (“This is the end of it!” )
  • Koniec i basta! (Literally: “The end and that’s it!” and translates to “This is the end of it!” )

4- Other useful angry imperatives

Below you’ll find a number of other useful imperatives to express negative emotions in Polish.

  • Spadaj! (“Get lost!” )
  • Spadaj na drzewo! (Literally: “Get lost onto the tree!” )
  • Spadówa! (“Get lost!” )

These three expressions are the best options to tell someone to get lost. There are many other ways to say this, but they’re more offensive.

A Child Jumping on the Couch and a Helpless Mother

  • Uspokój się! (“Calm down!” )
  • No weź się uspokój! (“Do calm down!” )
  • Uspokoisz się wreszcie? (“Will you finally calm down?” )

The above phrases are useful when you’re irritated because someone is overly agitated, and you want them to calm down.

  • Koniec dyskusji! (“End of discussion!” )
  • Nie dyskutuj ze mną! (Literally “Don’t discuss with me!” and translates to “Don’t question me!” )
  • Nie chcę (już) o tym rozmawiać. (“I don’t want to talk about it [anymore].” )

All of the above phrases can be used when you’re no longer interested in discussing a topic, or when your decision is final and you want to let the other person know you won’t change your mind.

  • Wynocha! (“Get out of here!” )
  • Wynoś się! (“Get out of here!” )
  • Zejdź mi z oczu! (“Get out of my sight!” )

If nothing is working, sometimes you may want to ask someone to disappear, at least for the time being. The abovementioned expressions are perfect if you want to start diffusing the situation before it gets out of hand.

Alternatively, if you’re very angry and you feel like you never want to see the person again, you can say:

  • Nie chcę Cię więcej widzieć! (“I don’t want to ever see you again.” )

Use this phrase carefully, though. It may not be one of the worst Polish curses, but it can really hurt someone!

The phrases we outlined in this section are used in informal conversations. But what should you say if you’re experiencing bad service in Poland? Click the link to find out!

2. Angry Warnings

When you want to let someone know you’re really angry in Polish, you may want to use certain warnings to prevent a fight. Here are some useful expressions for people who want to learn angry words in Polish:

  • Nie prowokuj mnie! (“Don’t provoke me!” )
  • Prosisz się o kłopoty! (“You’re asking for trouble!” )
  • Ostrzegam Cię! (“I’m warning you!” )
  • To moje ostatnie ostrzeżenie! (“This is my last warning.” )

The above angry warnings are a great way to show the other person that you’re upset. They can be used toward adults and children alike.

Three Fingers of a Hand

  • Liczę do trzech! (“I’m counting to three!” )

This is a very common phrase used by parents. It’s a warning for the child to do what the parent has asked them to before they finish counting to three (raz, dwa, trzy!). If not, there will be consequences.

Would you like to learn more about counting in Polish? Check out these lessons:

Here’s another handy angry Polish phrase:

  • Nie będę tolerować takiego zachowania. (“I will not tolerate this behavior.” )

This angry warning is mostly used by authority figures, such as parents or teachers.

  • Nie wtrącaj się! (“Stay out of it!” )
  • Zajmij się swoimi sprawami! / Zajmij się własnymi sprawami! (“Mind your own business!” )
  • To nie Twoja sprawa! (“It’s none of your business!” )

The last three phrases can be used in situations where someone is getting involved in your personal matters, and you don’t want them to.

Before moving on to the next section, there’s also a number of warning idioms in Polish you may be interested in.

3. Angry Blaming

There are situations in life when a person feels so upset that blaming someone else seems like the only solution. They may not be the most productive things to say, but they’re certainly better than offensive Polish swear words!

  • Co ty sobie wyobrażasz? (Literally “What are you thinking?” but has the meaning of “What were you thinking?” in English)
  • Zwariowałeś? (“Have you gone mad?” )
  • Jesteś nienormalny! (Literally “You’re not normal!” but the meaning is closer to “There’s something wrong with you!” ) [to a man]
  • Jesteś nienormalna! [the same expression, but used toward a woman]

These three expressions are used when someone does something outrageous that really upsets you.

  • Jesteś niemożliwy! (“You’re impossible!” ) [to a man]
  • Jesteś niemożliwa! [same as above, but to a woman]

The main meaning of this phrase is similar to the other ones. However, it can also have a positive connotation, like if someone has pleasantly surprised us. Don’t worry though, there’s little to no scope for misunderstanding. The intended meaning is implied by the tone and the context.

A Visibly Angry Man Shouting

  • Chyba sobie żartujesz! (Literally “It seems like you’re joking!” but the meaning is closer to “You must be kidding me!” )
  • Chyba sobie żarty stroisz! (this is another version of the expression above)

Both are used when someone’s suggestion or statement is so upsetting that it’s difficult to believe.

  • Masz o sobie za wysokie mniemanie! (“You think too much of yourself!” )

This is a useful expression in situations where someone is behaving in an arrogant manner, and you want to put them in their place.

  • To wszystko Twoja wina! (“It’s all your fault!” )
  • To wszystko przez Ciebie! (“It’s all because of you!” )
  • Pokpiłeś sprawę! (“You’ve messed up!” )

It’s never truly the fault of one side or the other, but there are reasons why you think it’s always your partner’s fault. The above expressions are reasonably polite Polish curse phrases to use when you feel that it’s the other person who’s to blame in a given situation.

  • Nie da się z tobą wytrzymać! (“I can’t stand you!” )
  • Nienawidzę Cię! (“I hate you!” )
  • Nigdy Ci tego nie zapomnę! (“I’ll never forget that!” )
  • Nigdy Ci tego nie wybaczę! (“I’ll never forgive you!” )

These expressions are things an angry Polish person would say just before slamming the door. Yet again, it’s better to use these than to turn to stronger language. But there are still better ways of channeling your anger.

4. Describing How You Feel

Negative Verbs

A much more productive alternative to using mild Polish curse words and expressions is simply describing your feelings.

Here are two very common Polish expressions to describe your negative feelings and let the other person know you’re angry in Polish:

  • Wyprowadził mnie z równowagi! (Literally “You’ve unbalanced me!” but translates to “You’ve made me very upset!” ) [to a man]
  • Wyprowadził mnie z równowagi! [the same expression, but to a woman]

Now, let’s learn some more handy phrases. As you can see, there are two versions of the adjective below (click on the link to review other high-frequency adjectives). The first one refers to female speakers and the second one to male speakers.

  • Jestem zła/zły. (“I’m angry.” ) [same as “mad” in Polish]
  • Jestem bardzo zła/zły. (“I’m very angry.” )
  • Jestem na Ciebie zła/zły. (“I’m angry with you.” )
  • Trzęsę się ze złości. (“I’m so angry I’m shaking.” )
  • Gotuję się ze złości. (“I’m boiling with anger.” )

You can find more vocabulary for expressing negative feelings in Polish in our vocabulary builder 21 words for negative emotions.

5. How to Calm Yourself Down When You’re Angry

A Woman Sitting in Meditation

Talking about your feelings is a good solution, but there’s an even better way to avoid using Polish curse words. Can you guess what it is? It’s calming yourself down. With these tips, you may not feel the need to get angry in Polish after all:

  • Take a few deep breaths; if you can, close your eyes, too.
  • Go for a walk.
  • Exercise or go for a run.
  • Listen to relaxing or meditative music.
  • Write your feelings down.
  • Think about why you’re angry. Are you right or are you projecting?

You can find more tips on how to calm yourself down when you’re angry on Wikihow. If none of the tips helps you, check out our lesson on being angry to expand your vocabulary on this topic even further.

6. Final Thoughts

Today you’ve learned how to express anger in Polish without using strong Polish curse words, and you’ve added many useful expressions to your vocabulary for situations where you want to say something not-so-nice to someone.

We didn’t give you the worst Polish curse words here, but you can find the top five Polish phrases your teacher will never teach you and a lot of other useful content on PolishPod101.com. With us, you can learn with interactive and fun content that will help you speak Polish in no time. Don’t take our word for it, though. Start your free trial today, and see for yourself why learners from all over the world choose this tool to learn Polish.

Don’t go yet! Let us know which of these angry Polish phrases is your favorite. We’re waiting to hear from you in the comments section. 🙂

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