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The 100 Most Common Polish Verbs for Beginners

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A verb is a crucial part of any sentence. Today, we’re going to introduce you to the most commonly used Polish verbs, the basic rules governing their placement in a sentence, and their conjugation. By the time you finish this article, you’ll be able to see massive progress in your Polish-speaking abilities! 
Other similarly useful articles you should have a look at are: 100 Adjectives (link) and 100 Nouns (link).

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Polish Table of Contents
  1. Using Polish Verbs in a Sentence
  2. Polish Verb Conjugation Rules
  3. Polish Verbs of Motion and Action
  4. Verbs for Talking About Feelings, Thoughts, and Preferences
  5. Polish Modal Verbs
  6. Final Thoughts

1. Using Polish Verbs in a Sentence 

A Person Writing on a Chalkboard

We’re not going to go into much detail, but it’s important that you understand certain concepts about Polish language verbs so that you can use them correctly.

A. Various Forms of Polish Verbs

Before we start introducing you to new Polish verbs, we’d like you to understand that they can have different forms. Polish verbs are modified depending on the:

  • Tense

There are three modern Polish verb tenses: the past tense (czas przeszły), the present tense (czas teraźniejszy), and the future tense (czas przyszły). For the purpose of this article, we’ll focus on one of the Polish verb tenses: the present tense. 

  • Aspect

There are two aspects in Polish: imperfective (niedokonany) referring to incomplete actions, and perfective (dokonany) referring to complete actions. 

  • Mood  

There are three moods of Polish verbs: indicative, imperative, and conditional. 

  • Person and Number

Each person, depending on the number, has a form of the verb attributed to it. This is why personal pronouns are often dropped in Polish. If you’d like to know more about Polish pronouns, we’ve written a whole article about them (link). 

Some verb forms differ depending on the gender of the person to whom the verb is referring. This is relevant, for example, when creating forms in the past tense. 

B. Verb Placement in a Sentence

Where do you place a verb in an affirmative sentence in Polish? It’s quite easy, as Polish uses a similar sentence structure as English:

Subject + Verb + Object (SVO)

  • “I’ve eaten a banana.”

Ja zjadłam banana

As we’ve mentioned before, pronouns in Polish are often dropped. This is why it would be more natural to get rid of the pronoun “I” (ja), and say:

  • Zjadłam banana.
a Bunch of Bananas

If you’re not a fan of bananas, find the name of your favorite fruit or vegetable on our food vocabulary list. Now, to form a question, we just have to add the word czy before this sentence:

  • “Have I eaten a banana?”

Czy zjadłam banana? 

While in English, you use different words depending on the context, such as “does,” “do,” and “did,” in Polish you always use czy. Czy is also often dropped, especially in speech:

  • Zjadłam banana? 

To learn more about questions in Polish, check out our list of “Top 25 Polish Questions You Need to Know.” 

2. Polish Verb Conjugation Rules 

Top Verbs

Verbs in Polish are conjugated and there are four conjugation groups. So how does Polish conjugation work?

Well, Polish verb conjugation rules are a bit different than those in many other languages. Namely, the verbs aren’t grouped according to the verbs’ endings. To know a conjugation pattern, you need at least the first-person singular. 


It may come in handy to have a Polish verbs PDF with conjugation patterns. You can create one by choosing “Print” and “Save as PDF” from your browser settings on this page. Here are three other ways to convert a webpage to PDF

A. Conjugation I

Have a look at the first conjugation. It’s defined by the form of the first-person singular ending in ę and the second-person singular ending in esz. We’ll use the verb pisać (“to write”) as an example in the Polish verb conjugation chart below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja piszę (“I write”)my piszemy (“we write”)
ty piszesz (“you write”)wy piszecie (“you write”)
On / ona / ono pisze (“he / she / it writes”)oni, one piszą (“they write”)
  • Ona pisze list

“She’s writing a letter.” 

Some other verbs that follow this conjugation pattern are: 

1- Nieść (“to carry”)


Niosę walizki

“I’m carrying the suitcases.” 

2- Kopać (“to kick”) or (“to dig”)

Kopię dół

“I’m digging a hole.”

3- Dawać (“to give”)

Dajemy prezent Annie

“We’re giving a present to Anna.”

4- Płakać (“to cry”)

Płaczę przez Ciebie

“I’m crying because of you.”

B. Conjugation II

The second conjugation is associated with different Polish verb endings: the first-person singular ending is ę and the second-person singular ending is isz or ysz. We’ll examine this by looking at the Polish verb conjugation table for płacić (“to pay”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja płacę (“I pay”)my płacimy (“we pay”)
ty płacisz (“you pay”)wy płacicie (“you pay”)
on / ona / ono płaci (“he / she / it pays”)oni, one płacą (“they pay”)
  • Ja płacę! 

“I’m paying!”

Two People Sitting at the Table in a Restaurant, One Person Asks for the Bill

Other verbs following the same conjugation pattern are: 

1- Ganić (“to scold”)

Dlaczego mnie ganisz? 

“Why are you scolding me?”

2- Suszyć (“to dry”)

Czy suszysz włosy? 

“Are you drying your hair?” 

3- Robić (“to do”)

No i co mi zrobisz? 

“And what will/can you do to me?”

4- Wrócić (“to come back”)

Nigdy nie wrócę! 

“I’ll never come back!”

C. Conjugation III

It’s time to learn more about the third conjugation pattern, where the first-person singular ends in -(a)m and the second-person singular in -(a)sz. Below, you’ll find the Polish verb conjugation table for czytać (“to read”): 

SINGULARPLURAL
ja czytam (“I read”)my czytamy (“we read”)
ty czytasz (“you read”)wy czytacie (“you read”)
on / ona / ono czyta (“he / she / it reads”)oni, one czytają (“they read”)
  • Czytasz gazety? 

“Do you read newspapers?”

Other verbs following the same conjugation pattern include the following: 

1- Padać (“to fall”)

Pada deszcz

“It’s raining.” (Literally: “Rain is falling.”)

2- Grać (“to play”)

Gramy w bingo

“We’re playing bingo.” 

3- Mieć (“to have”)

Czy macie dzieci? 

“Do you have children?”

4- Wołać (“to call [someone to come])

Wołam i wołam! 

“I’m calling and calling!”

D. Conjugation IV

This is the fourth and final regular Polish verb conjugation you may encounter. The form of the first-person singular is -(e)m and the form of the second-person singular is -(e)sz. Have a look at its forms for the verb jeść (“to eat”):

SINGULARPLURAL
ja jem (“I eat”)my jemy (“we eat”)
ty jesz (“you eat”)wy jecie (“you eat”)
on / ona / ono je (“he / she / it eats”)oni, one jedzą (“they eat”)
  • Jem gruszkę

“I’m eating a pear.”

Here are some other Polish verbs that fall under this pattern:

1- Umieć (“to know how to”)

Umiem liczyć

“I can count.” 

2- Wiedzieć (“to know”)

Wiem o Tobie sporo

“I know a lot about you.”

E. The Irregular Polish Verb “To Be”

The most important verb in any language, “to be,” is an example of an irregular Polish verb conjugation. To be (być) or not to be (czy nie być)? 

A Question Mark on a Birthday Cake

Find out in the table below:

SINGULARPLURAL
ja jestem (“I am”)my jesteśmy (“we are”)
ty jesteś (“you are”)wy jesteście (“you are”)
on / ona / ono jest (“he / she / it is”)oni, one (“they are”)
  • Ona jest zła. 

“She’s angry.” 

The extremely important verb być is linked to a number of expressions. Click on the link to learn more about them. 

Are there any other Polish irregular verbs apart from the Polish verb “to be?” Yes and no. Most verbs that don’t follow a pattern from any Polish verb conjugation table we’ve included are only partial exceptions. A form, or forms, may be different, but the verb still mostly follows one of the conjugation patterns.

Polish verb conjugation rules require a lot of practice, but you can do it! If in doubt, you can always use one of the online conjugation resources, such as Cooljugator or Ba.bla, that give you a nice breakdown of forms according to Polish verb tenses and other variables.

3. Polish Verbs of Motion and Action

More Essential Verbs

To kick off our Polish verbs list, this is a category of Polish verbs that’s very important. Verbs of motion and action (as well as those indicating the lack thereof) are the most common verbs in any language. Here’s a list of the most important ones with examples:

VERBEXAMPLE
Iść (“to go”)Idę do pracy
“I’m going to work.”
Chodzić (“to walk”)

This verb has many derivatives due to changes to the prefix. Click on the link to learn more about them.
Chodzę po domu
“I’m walking around the house.”
Skakać (“to jump”)Skaczesz wysoko
“You jump high.”
Biegać (“to run”)Biegam wolno
“I run slowly.”
Łapać (“to catch”)Łapię piłkę
“I’m catching the ball.”
Uderzać (“to hit”)Uderzasz w stół
“You’re hitting the table.”
Rzucać (“to throw”)Rzucę Ci piłkę
“I’ll throw the ball to you.”
Czekać (“to wait”)Czekasz na kogoś? 
“Are you waiting for someone?”
Rysować (“to draw”)Co rysujesz
“What are you drawing?”
Nalewać (“to pour”)Nalewasz nam soku
“You’re pouring us some juice.”
Ciągnąć (“to drag”) / (“to pull”)Ciągniesz za mocno. 
“You’re pulling too hard.”
Pchać (“to push”)Pcham wózek
“I’m pushing a trolley.”
Podnosić (“to lift”) / (“to raise”)Podnosisz głos niepotrzebnie
“You’re unnecessarily raising your voice.”
Odłożyć (“to put down”)Odłożę to na miejsce
“I’ll put it in its place.”
Zamknąć (“to close”)Czy zamkniesz drzwi? 
“Will you close the door?”
Otworzyć (“to open”)Otworzyłam słoik
“I’ve opened a jar.”
Trzymać (“to hold”)Trzymasz psa? 
“Are you holding the dog?”
Stać (“to stand”)Stoję w kolejce
“I’m standing in a queue.”
Siedzieć (“to sit”)Siedzisz przy stole. 
“You sit at the table.”
Klaskać (“to clap”)Klaszczę do rytmu
“I’m clapping to the beat.”
Tańczyć (“to dance”)Czy tańczysz tango? 
“Do you dance tango?”
Machać (“move [in slang]”) / (“wave [with a hand]”)Leżeć (“to lie down”)Leżę na podłodze
“I’m lying down on the floor.”
Pić (“to drink”)Piję colę
“I’m drinking a Coke.”
Gotować (“to cook”)Gotujesz kolację
“You’re cooking dinner.”
Przygotowywać (“to prepare”)Przygotowujesz konia? 
“Are you preparing the horse?”
Budzić się (“to wake up”)Budzę się rano. 
“I wake up in the morning.”
Malować (“to paint”)Maluję obraz
“I’m painting (a painting).”
Narzekać (“to complain”)Ciągle narzekasz
“You’re complaining all the time.”
Latać (“to fly”)Dokąd lecisz
“Where are you flying to?”
Wspinać się (“to climb”)Wspinam się po górach
“I climb mountains.”
Przyjść (“to come”)Rozciągasz się po jodze. 
“You’re stretching after yoga.”
Przyjść (“to come”)Czy przyjdziesz jutro? 
“Will you come tomorrow?”
Uciekać (“to run away”)Nie uciekam
“I’m not running away.”
Wyjść (“to go out”) / (“to leave”)Zaraz wyjdę z domu
“I’ll leave the house in a minute.”
Zostać (“to stay”)Zostajesz w szkole
“You’re staying at school.”
Oglądać (“to watch”)Oglądam telewizję.
“I watch TV.”
Wąchać (“to smell”)Wącham kwiaty. 
“I’m smelling the flowers.”
Czyścić (“to clean”)Czyszczę podłogę. 
“I’m cleaning the floor.”
Próbować (“to try”) / (“to taste”)Spróbujesz zupy? 
“Will you taste the soup?”
Bawić się (“to play”)Bawię się z dziećmi. 
“I’m playing with the kids.”
Pytać (“to ask”)Pytam go o zdanie. 
“I’m asking him about his opinion.”
Odpowiedzieć (“to answer”)Odpowiesz na moje pytanie? 
“Will you answer my question?”
Mówić (“to speak”)Mówię powoli. 
“I speak slowly.”
Opowiadać (“to tell”)Opowiadam historię. 
“I’m telling a story.”

https://wordlist.languagepod101.com/wordlist/media/17388&v=medium.jpg (a list of verbs)

All of these Polish motion verbs examples are either in the first- or second-person singular so that you know which conjugation they’re likely to follow. If you would like a Polish verbs PDF, you can click “Print” on your browser and “Save as PDF” to have access to the article whenever you need it.

4. Verbs for Talking About Feelings, Thoughts, and Preferences

Negative Verbs

More useful Polish verbs are those used for talking about feelings, thoughts, and preferences. This section will cover the top Polish verbs you should know to talk about these subjects! 

Tell Me About Your Feelings in Polish

Here’s a number of useful verbs for talking about your feelings, both positive and negative, in Polish: 

VERBEXAMPLE
Positive feelings:
Lubić (“to like”)Lubię psy
“I like dogs.”
Kochać (“to love”)Kochasz mnie? 
“Do you love me?”
Uwielbiać (“to adore”)Uwielbiam festiwale filmowe! 
“I love film festivals!”
Przepadać (“to really like”)Przepadam za teatrem
“I really like theatre.”
Cieszyć się (“to be happy [for]”)Cieszysz się? 
“Are you happy?”
Uśmiechać się (“to smile”)Uśmiecham się często
“I smile often.”
Śmiać się (“to laugh”)Lubię, gdy się śmiejesz
“I like when you laugh.”
Zakochać się (“to fall in love”)Zakocham się
“I’ll fall in love.”
Podziwiać (“to admire”)Podziwiam Cię! 
“I admire you.”
Dogadywać się (“to get on well”)(Dobrze) dogaduję się z nim
“I get on well with him.” 

“Well” (dobrze) is often added for emphasis.
Czuć (“to feel”)Czujesz to? 
“Do you feel it?”
Woleć (“to prefer”)Wolę zostać w domu. 
“I prefer to stay home.”
Interesować się (“to be interested in”)Interesuję się dinozaurami. 
“I’m interested in dinosaurs.”
Pasjonować się (“to have a passion for”)On pasjonuje się historią. 
“He’s passionate about history.”
Negative feelings:
Nienawidzić (“to hate”)Nienawidzę jej! 
“I hate her!”
Bać się (“to be scared of”)Boisz się? 
“Are you scared?”
Złościć się (“to get angry”)Złoszczę się bez powodu
“I get angry without a reason.”
Kłócić się (“to have arguments”)Kłócisz się z ojcem? 
“Do you have arguments with (your) father?”
Denerwować się (“to be nervous about”)Denerwuję się trochę
“I’m a bit nervous about it.”
Brzydzić się (“to detest”) / (“to be disgusted by”)Brzydzisz się karaluchów? 
“Are you disgusted by cockroaches?”
Wyśmiewać się (“to laugh at”)Wyśmiewasz się ze mnie
“You’re laughing at me.”
Wstydzić się (“to be ashamed”) / (“to be embarrassed”)Wstydzę się
“I’m ashamed of myself.”
Czerwienić się (“to blush”)Czy często się czerwienisz
“Do you blush often?”
Zazdrościć (“to be jealous”) / (“to envy”)Naprawdę mi zazdrościsz
“Do you really envy me?”
Żałować (“to regret”)Nie żałuję tego. 
“I don’t regret it.”
Martwić się (“to worry”)Za dużo się martwisz.  
“You worry too much.”
A Person Saying

We’ve only included negative verbs that are verbs in their own right. To express a negative feeling, you can also simply use the negation nie (“no”):

  • Nie lubię truskawek

“I don’t like strawberries.”

That’s a lot of useful Polish verbs, right? 

What Do You Think About It?

Expressing your thoughts and opinions in Polish is important for effective communication. Here’s a number of essential Polish verbs that will come in handy when doing that: 

VERBEXAMPLE
Myśleć (“to think”)Myślę, więc jestem
“I think, therefore I am.”
Sądzić (“to reckon”)Sądzisz, że on to zrobił? 
“Do you reckon he was the one who did it?”
Wierzyć (“to believe”)Wierzę, że to nieprawda
“I believe that it’s not true.”
Wątpić (“to doubt”)Wątpisz w moje słowa? 
“Do you doubt my words?”
Zgadzać się (“to agree”)Nie zgadzam się z Tobą. 
“I disagree with you.”
Zgadywać (“to guess”)Zgaduję, nie wiem na pewno. 
“I’m guessing, I don’t know for sure.”

5. Polish Modal Verbs

The last category of Polish verbs we’ll discuss today are modal verbs. They’re most often used in conjunction with another verb in the infinitive form.

VERBEXAMPLE
Móc (“can”) / (“to be able to”)Mogę Ci pomóc.  
“I can help you.”
Musieć (“have to”) / (“must”)Musisz coś zrobić! 
“You must/have to do something.”
Chcieć (“to want”)Chcę iść do kina
“I want to go to the cinema.”
Powinno się (“should”)Powinnam pójść do lekarza. 
“I should go to the doctor.”

As you can see in the table, you only conjugate the modal verb. 

6. Final Thoughts

When you’ve just started learning a language, memorizing the most important Polish verbs is a great idea. Even if you don’t always know the correct forms, people will often be able to understand what you mean from the context. There are two other lists on PolishPod101 that you can use to learn the main verbs in Polish: 25 Most Commonly Used Verbs for Any Language and 50 Most Common Verbs
With PolishPod101, you can learn much more than just the verbs. Get your free lifetime account today and start exploring countless audio and video lessons with real teachers. We offer you more than 160 hours of learning, and the best part is that you can use this language-learning tool wherever you go.

One more thing before you close your browser: What’s your favorite Polish verb? Did we miss any important ones? Let us know in the comments section!

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