Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

Brandon: Hello everyone, and welcome back to PolishPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 6: Winter is Coming to Poland. I’m Brandon.
Marzena: And I’m Marzena.
Brandon: In this lesson, you'll learn how to ask "when" questions in Polish.
Marzena: This conversation takes place at a cafe.
Brandon: It’s between Tom and Jane.
Marzena: Since the speakers are friends, they’ll be using informal Polish.
Brandon: Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Jane: Kiedy masz wolne?
Tom: W styczniu mam tydzień urlopu.
Jane: Świetnie! Zorganizujmy kulig!
Tom: I pieczenie kiełbasek!
Jane: Uwielbiam kiełbaski z ogniska!
Tom: No to ustalone!
Brandon: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
Jane: Kiedy masz wolne?
Tom: W styczniu mam tydzień urlopu.
Jane: Świetnie! Zorganizujmy kulig!
Tom: I pieczenie kiełbasek!
Jane: Uwielbiam kiełbaski z ogniska!
Tom: No to ustalone!
Brandon: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Jane: Kiedy masz wolne?
Brandon: When are you off?
Tom: W styczniu mam tydzień urlopu.
Brandon: In January, I have one week of holiday.
Jane: Świetnie! Zorganizujmy kulig!
Brandon: Great! Let's organize a sleigh ride!
Tom: I pieczenie kiełbasek!
Brandon: And grilling sausages!
Jane: Uwielbiam kiełbaski z ogniska!
Brandon: I love sausages grilled over the fire!
Tom: No to ustalone!
Brandon: So it's decided!
Brandon: This lesson’s dialogue takes place during the winter. Is winter very cold in Poland?
Marzena: It’s rather cold, but every year winter weather is different, so it’s difficult to predict. However, very often it’s frosty and snowy—a real winter—as we call it.
Brandon: Are there any special winter activities?
Marzena: Of course it depends on the person, but sleigh rides are very popular. In the past, they were always organized by schools and companies, and occurred in villages where farmers with a cart and horses were hired. The horses would pull a number of sleighs tied together with a rope.
Brandon: Wow, that sounds like fun!
Marzena: It is great fun! I’d recommend it to anyone who visits Poland in the winter! After the sleigh ride, bonfires are organized so that everyone can warm up and have a great dinner of bread, potatoes, and sausages.
Brandon: I’m already hungry. Okay, now let’s move on to the vocab.
Brandon: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
: The first word we shall see is:
Joanna: mieć wolne [natural native speed]
Brandon: to be off
Joanna: mieć wolne [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: mieć wolne [natural native speed]
: Next:
Joanna: styczeń [natural native speed]
Brandon: January
Joanna: styczeń [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: styczeń [natural native speed]
: Next:
Joanna: tydzień [natural native speed]
Brandon: week
Joanna: tydzień [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: tydzień [natural native speed]
: Next:
Joanna: organizować [natural native speed]
Brandon: to organize
Joanna: organizować [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: organizować [natural native speed]
: Next:
Joanna: kulig [natural native speed]
Brandon: sleigh ride
Joanna: kulig [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: kulig [natural native speed]
: And Last:
Joanna: ognisko [natural native speed]
Brandon: bonfire
Joanna: ognisko [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Joanna: ognisko [natural native speed]
Brandon: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Marzena, what’s our first word?
Marzena: Urlop.
Brandon: This means “vacation” or “leave.”
Marzena: Urlop, which refers to a holiday off from work, can be also called wolne.
Brandon: That literally translates as “free.”
Marzena: There are many phrases that use the noun urlop.
Brandon: Let’s go through them one by one.
Marzena: Brać urlop.
Brandon: “To take a vacation.”
Marzena: Iść na urlop.
Brandon: “To go on vacation.”
Marzena: Być na urlopie.
Brandon: “To be on leave.”
Marzena: There are also quite a few words describing leave from work, so let’s have a look at them too.The first one is urlop macierzyński.
Brandon: “Maternity leave.”
Marzena: Urlop płatny.
Brandon: “Paid vacation.”
Marzena: Urlop bezpłatny.
Brandon: “Unpaid vacation.”
Marzena: And urlop zdrowotny.
Brandon: “Sick leave.”
Marzena: Another word I want to tell you about is kiełbasa.
Brandon: This means “sausage” in English.
Marzena: In Poland, we eat a lot of sausages. They’re on sandwiches, grilled, roasted, and boiled. There are many different kinds of sausages, so let’s look at a couple of them. The first is kiełbasa wędzona.
Brandon: “Smoked sausage.”
Marzena: Kiełbasa podsuszana.
Brandon: “Slightly dried sausage.”
Marzena: For more types of sausages, be sure to check out the lesson notes.
Brandon: I bet our listeners just got hungry again!
Marzena: Don’t worry. We’ll have more topics about food!
Brandon: I can’t wait! Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use “when” questions. Marzena, how do we say “when” in Polish?
Marzena: It’s kiedy. Asking “when” questions is very easy in Polish, as long as you remember the question word itself and the necessary verbs.
Brandon: Let’s go through a few useful question patterns.
Marzena: Good idea. Probably the simplest kind of “when” question uses the verb być.
Brandon: Meaning “to be.” Hopefully you’ve already mastered its conjugation, because it’s crucial to forming a correct question.
Marzena: Just start with the question word, then add the correct form of the verb być, and finish with the object that you’re inquiring about. For example, Kiedy jest Dzień Matki?
Brandon: “When is Mother’s Day?”
Marzena: In this case, the answer will consist of the date only. It’s not necessary to try to make a complex answer. Just give the time, date, or time of day and so on.
Brandon: What if we want to ask someone about their birthday?
Marzena: Then we would say, Kiedy masz urodziny?
Brandon: “When is your birthday?” It literally means “When do you have your birthday?'”
Marzena: Then, for example, you can answer with 6 kwietnia.
Brandon: “On April 6th.”
Marzena: Of course when you use the third person or direct your question to a group of people, you need to conjugate the verb. For example, Kiedy Kasia wraca z USA?
Brandon: “When is Kasia coming back from the USA?”
Marzena: Or Kiedy mamy egzamin końcowy?
Brandon: “When do we have the final exam?”
Marzena: In all cases, it’s enough to just answer with the time of the event.
Brandon: You can also ask a more detailed question, right?
Marzena: Yes, by adding do or od.
Brandon: There are many translations for both words. The first can mean “until,” “till,” or “to,” and the second one can mean “from” or “since.”
Marzena: For example, Od kiedy mieszkasz w Polsce?
Brandon: “Since when have you lived in Poland?”
Marzena: Or Do kiedy mogę trzymać tę książkę?
Brandon: “Until when can I keep this book?”


Brandon: Well, that’s all for this lesson. Don’t forget that you can leave us a message on this lesson’s page at PolishPod101.com if you have any questions or comments.
Marzena: That’s right. In the meantime, thanks for listening…
Brandon: And we’ll see you next time. Bye!
Brandon: Listeners, ever have any Polish language or lesson-related questions?
Marzena: Or maybe you have some feedback for us...
Brandon: Leave us a comment or ask a question on the lessons page!
Marzena: It's super simple. Go to PolishPod101.com...
Brandon: ...click on comments,
Marzena: ...enter your comment and name,
Brandon: ...and that's it!
Marzena: Commenting is a great way to practice writing and reading in Polish.
Brandon: It helps you learn faster.
Marzena: And it helps us get better through your feedback.
Brandon: No excuses.
Marzena: Go to PolishPod101.com, and comment now.
Brandon: NOW!