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Lesson Transcript

Brandon: Hello everyone and welcome back to PolishPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner, season 1, lesson 13, Do You Need to See a Polish Doctor? I’m Brandon.
Marzena: And I’m Marzena.
Brandon: In this lesson, you'll learn about Polish modal verbs.
Marzena: This conversation takes place at home.
Brandon: It’s between Tom and Jane.
Marzena: The speakers are friends, so they’ll be using informal Polish.
Brandon: Let’s listen to the conversation.
Jane: Źle dziś wyglądasz.
Tom: Źle się czuję.
Jane: Co ci jest?
Tom: Nie wiem. Cały dzień boli mnie głowa i trochę mi słabo.
Jane: Powinieneś iść do lekarza. Znam dobrego niedaleko stąd.
Tom: No to chodźmy, ale musimy wrócić za godzinę.
Jane: Dobrze.
Brandon: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
Jane: Źle dziś wyglądasz.
Tom: Źle się czuję.
Jane: Co ci jest?
Tom: Nie wiem. Cały dzień boli mnie głowa i trochę mi słabo.
Jane: Powinieneś iść do lekarza. Znam dobrego niedaleko stąd.
Tom: No to chodźmy, ale musimy wrócić za godzinę.
Jane: Dobrze.
Brandon: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Jane: Źle dziś wyglądasz.
Brandon: You look bad today
Tom: Źle się czuję.
Brandon: I feel bad.
Jane: Co ci jest?
Brandon: What's wrong?
Tom: Nie wiem. Cały dzień boli mnie głowa i trochę mi słabo.
Brandon: I don't know. I've had a headache the whole day and I feel weak.
Jane: Powinieneś iść do lekarza. Znam dobrego niedaleko stąd.
Brandon: You should see a doctor. I know a good one not far away from here.
Tom: No to chodźmy, ale musimy wrócić za godzinę.
Brandon: So let's go, but we have to come back in one hour.
Jane: Dobrze.
Brandon: Alright.
Marzena: Let’s talk a little bit about healthcare in Poland. Unfortunately, it is actually not so good.
Brandon: Why is that?
Marzena: Well, first of all we should mention that healthcare in Poland is free for every citizen, and is funded by Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia or NFZ for short.
Brandon: ...which in English is National Health Fund
Marzena: So it’s free of charge, which is good, but because of very serious problems like long waiting lists to see specialists or get surgery, which are sometimes years long, many Poles choose private healthcare.
Brandon: I read that 65% of Polish citizens go with the private option.
Marzena: That’s right, and 92% of pregnant women choose doctors at private clinics.
Brandon: I hope the situation improves soon! There’s more information about this very important topic in lesson notes. Okay, now let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson
Vocab list
Brandon: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word we shall see is:
Marzena: dziś [natural native speed]
Brandon: today
Marzena: dziś [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: dziś [natural native speed]
Marzena: cały [natural native speed]
Brandon: normal, whole
Marzena: cały [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: cały [natural native speed]
Marzena: dzień [natural native speed]
Brandon: day
Marzena: dzień [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: dzień [natural native speed]
Marzena: boleć [natural native speed]
Brandon: to ache, to hurt
Marzena: boleć [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: boleć [natural native speed]
Marzena: głowa [natural native speed]
Brandon: head
Marzena: głowa [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: głowa [natural native speed]
Marzena: trochę [natural native speed]
Brandon: a little bit, some
Marzena: trochę [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: trochę [natural native speed]
Marzena: lekarz [natural native speed]
Brandon: doctor
Marzena: lekarz [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: lekarz [natural native speed]
And Last:
Marzena: niedaleko [natural native speed]
Brandon: not far, near
Marzena: niedaleko [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Marzena: niedaleko [natural native speed]
Brandon: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Marzena, what’s our first word?
Marzena: boleć
Brandon: Which means “to ache” or “to hurt”
Marzena: This word derives from the masculine noun ból
Brandon: which means “pain” in English
Marzena: If we put it in a sentence, it will sound like this - Boli mnie głowa
Brandon: Which literally means “My head hurts me” but the more natural way of saying it in English is “I have a headache.” Now listeners, here is a very important piece of information about this. Whenever we say that something hurts someone, just like we did a moment ago, the word naming the person has to be in the accusative case.
Marzena: That’s why in the sentence I just told you we had the form mnie.
Brandon: You will find more examples of this usage in the lesson notes.
Marzena: The next word is the masculine noun lekarz
Brandon: Which means “doctor”
Marzena: If the doctor is female, you will have to use the feminine form, which is lekarka
Brandon: Marzena, how do you address a doctor in Poland?
Marzena: Oh, that’s a good question! When you’re talking with your doctor and he’s a man you should say panie doktorze to address him.
Brandon: Which translates into “Mr. doctor”
Marzena: Then if your doctor is a woman, you should use pani doktor
Brandon: which in English is “Ms. doctor”. Ok, now let’s move on to the grammar.
Brandon: In this lesson, we’re going to learn about how to use Polish modal verbs.
Marzena: So in English, there are two ways to express obligation, right?
Brandon: Yes, you can use either “should” or “ought to”
Marzena: In Polish it’s much easier, because there’s only one word that stands for both English verbs. It’s a little bit of a special word, because it doesn’t have a typical infinitive form.
Brandon: It’s a new word, so let’s go through its conjugation forms. Listeners, repeat after Marzena
Marzena: powinienem
Brandon: (pause) “I should” - male speaking
Marzena: powinnam
Brandon: (pause) “I should” - female speaking
Marzena: powinieneś
Brandon: (pause) “you should” - addressing a male
Marzena: powinnaś
Brandon: (pause) “you should” - addressing a female
Marzena: powinien
Brandon: (pause) “he should”
Marzena: powinna
Brandon: (pause) “she should”
Marzena: powinno
Brandon: (pause) “it should”. As you heard, there are different versions of this verb depending on the gender of person speaking. Listeners, be careful with that. Marzena, can you give us an example of a sentence that uses this verb?
Marzena: Powinieneś iść do lekarza.
Brandon: This means “You should see the doctor.”
Marzena: Can you recognize who we are addressing in that sentence? The answer is - a man, because the form powinieneś is masculine
Brandon: There’s one more pair of English verbs - “have to” and “must”. How do you say these in Polish?
Marzena: Again, there’s only one Polish word, and it’s musieć.
Brandon: Let’s go through the singular forms.
Marzena: OK! First up, muszę
Brandon: (pause) “I have to”
Marzena: musisz
Brandon: (pause) “you have to”
Marzena: musi
Brandon: (pause) “he has to”
Marzena: Both of these verbs, powinien and musieć, are followed by a verb in its infinitive form. For example - Muszę wrócić do domu przed 22.
Brandon: Which means “I have to go back home before 10pm.”
Marzena: The verb wrócić, which means “to go back”, is in the infinitive form
Brandon: Let’s get one more example with the other verb.
Marzena: OK - Powinnaś mówić więcej po polsku.
Brandon: meaning “You should speak Polish more.”
Marzena: Here the verb in the infinitive is mówić meaning “to speak”.


Brandon: Well, that’s going to do it for this lesson. Don’t forget to check the lesson notes to reinforce what you’ve learned in this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time. Bye!
Marzena: bye in Polish