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Cześć! Jestem Joanna. Hi! I’m Joanna.
Welcome to PolishPod101.com’s “Polski w 3 minuty”. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Polish.
In the last lesson, we learned how to use Polish singular adjectives.
In this lesson we will learn how to use plural adjectives.
Do you remember the most important rule about adjectives, which I told you about in the last lesson? Let me remind you - the gender of an adjective has to agree with the gender of a noun.
In plural, we have masculine-personal gender and non-masculine-personal gender.
Masculine-personal is reserved only for nouns and adjectives describing humans, for example: gardeners, doctors, students and so on. That’s why we call it masculine-personal. The 2nd one is non-masculine-personal which is used for plural feminine and neuter nouns.
Now let’s see how to make adjectives in these two genders. First I’ll give you a basic form of an adjective and then the masculine-personal and non-masculine personal form. First, adjectives that end with “y”.
“lazy” - leniwy - leniwi - leniwe
“fat” - gruby - grubi - grube
“beautiful” - piękny - piękni - piękne
“calm” - spokojny - spokojni - spokojne
“crazy” - zwariowany - zwariowani - zwariowane
To create a masculine-personal form we changed “y”, in Polish “Y” into “i” , in Polish “i” and to create non-masculine form we removed “y” from the basic masculine form and put “e” instead.
Now let’s try doing the same with the second group of adjectives, the ones that end with “i”. Again I will give you the basic masculine form first and then masculine-personal and finally non-masculine-personal.
“tall” - wysoki - wysocy - wysokie
“short” - niski - niscy - niskie
“blue” - niebieski - niebiescy - niebieskie
“ugly” - brzydki - brzydcy - brzydkie
To make the masculine-personal form here we have to replace the last two letters “ki”, in Polisk “ki” with “cy”, in Polish “cy”. And to make the non-masculine-personal form we jut have to add “e”, in Polish “e” to the basic masculine form.
Now let’s practice a little bit.
If we want to say “Those students are lazy” we would say in Polish “Tamci studenci są leniwi”.
Tamci means “those”, studenci means “students”, są is the verb być “to be” conjugated for Tamci studenci. And finally leniwi is the masculine-personal form of the adjective leniwy, “lazy”.
Now let’s try to make a sentence using a non-masculine-personal noun. For example koty, which means “cats” in English.
“My cats are ugly”, Moje koty są brzydkie.
Moje koty stands for “my cats”, then są is the conjugated verb być, “to be” and finally brzydkie, the non-masculine-personal form of adjective brzydki, “ugly”.
Now it’s time for Joanna’s Insights.
The most important thing to remember about Polish adjectives is that they have to agree with the noun they describe. So the first thing you have to do is recognize a gender of the noun and then choose the right form of adjective.
Remember, in singular we have 3 genders - masculine, feminine and neuter. In plural we have 2 genders - masculine-personal which is used for masculine and personal nouns and non-masculine-personal, which is used for plural feminine, neuter, personal and non-personal.
Now you can use Polish adjectives! In the next lesson we will start learning about Polish verbs.
Be sure to join us for the next Polski w 3 minuty lesson!
Do zobaczenia!